History of vegetarianism

Vegetarianism has its roots in the civilizations of ancient India and ancient Greece. Vegetarianism is the theory and practice of voluntary non-consumption of the flesh of any animal (including sea animals), with or without also eschewing other animal derivatives (such as dairy products or eggs).[1] The earliest records of vegetarianism as a concept and practice amongst a significant number of people concern ancient India[2] and the ancient Greek civilizations in southern Italy and Greece.[3] In both instances the diet was closely connected with the idea of nonviolence toward animals (called ahimsa in India), and was promoted by religious groups and philosophers.[4]

Following the Christianization of the Roman Empire in late antiquity (4th-6th centuries), vegetarianism nearly disappeared from Europe.[5] Several orders of monks in medieval Europe restricted or banned the consumption of meat for ascetic reasons, but none of them abstained from the consumption of fish; these monks were not vegetarians, but some were pescetarians.[6] Vegetarianism was to reemerge somewhat in Europe during the Renaissance,[7] and became a more widespread practice during the 19th and 20th centuries. The figures for the percentage of the Western world which is vegetarian varies between 0.5% & 4% per Mintel data in September 2006.[8]




In the ancient Vedic period, eating some kinds of meat was allowed by their laws, although vegetarianism was encouraged.[9] The Manusmriti law book states, "There is no sin in eating meat... but abstention brings great rewards."[10]

When the famous Chinese Buddhist monk Faxian visited the Magadha region of India in the early 5th century AD, he found that people abstain from taking life. ... They do not breed pigs or poultry or sell any animal food.[11]

Vegetarianism was (and still is) mandatory for the yogis, both for the practitioners of Hatha Yoga[12] and for the disciples of the Vaishnava schools of Bhakti Yoga (especially the Gaudiya Vaishnavas). A bhakta (devotee) offers all his food to Vishnu or Krishna as prasad before eating it[13] and only vegetarian food can be accepted as prasad.[14]

Early Buddhism and Jainism

Further information: History of Jainism and History of Buddhism

Jain and Buddhist sources show that the principle of nonviolence toward animals was an established rule in both religions as early as the 6th century BC.[15] The Jain concept, which is particularly strict, may be even much older. Parshva, the earliest Jain leader (Tirthankara) whom modern Western historians consider to be a historical figure, lived in the 8th or 7th century BC. He is said to have preached nonviolence no less radically than it was practiced in the Jain community in the times of Mahavira (6th century BC).[16]

Not everyone who refused to participate in any killing or injuring of animals also abstained from the consumption of meat.[17] Hence the question of Buddhist vegetarianism in the earliest stages of that religion's development is controversial. There are two schools of thought. One says that the Buddha and his followers ate meat offered to them by hosts or alms-givers if they had no reason to suspect that the animal had been slaughtered specifically for their sake.[18] The other one says that the Buddha and his community of monks (sangha) were strict vegetarians and the habit of accepting alms of meat was only tolerated later on, after a decline of discipline.[19]

The first opinion is supported by several passages in the Pali version of the Tripitaka, the opposite one by some Mahayana texts.[20] All those sources were put into writing several centuries after the death of the Buddha.[21] They may reflect the conflicting positions of different wings or currents within the Buddhist community in its early stage.[22] According to the Vinaya Pitaka, the first schism happened when the Buddha was still alive: a group of monks led by Devadatta left the community because they wanted stricter rules, including an unconditional ban on meat eating.[22]

The Mahaparinibbana Sutta, which narrates the end of the Buddha's life, states that he died after eating sukara-maddava, a term translated by some as pork, by others as mushrooms (or an unknown vegetable).[23][24]

The Buddhist emperor Ashoka (304 BC – 232 BC) was a vegetarian.[25] and a determined promoter of nonviolence to animals. He promulgated detailed laws aimed at the protection of many species, abolished animal sacrifice at his court, and admonished the population to avoid all kinds of unnecessary killing and injury.[26] Ashoka has asserted protection to fauna, from his edicts we could understand,


"Beloved-of-the-Gods, King Piyadasi, has caused this Dhamma edict to be written.[1] Here (in my domain) no living beings are to be slaughtered or offered in sacrifice. Nor should festivals be held, for Beloved-of-the-Gods, King Piyadasi, sees much to object to in such festivals, although there are some festivals that Beloved-of-the-Gods, King Piyadasi, does approve of.

Formerly, in the kitchen of Beloved-of-the-Gods, King Piyadasi, hundreds of thousands of animals were killed every day to make curry. But now with the writing of this Dhamma edict only three creatures, two peacocks and a deer are killed, and the deer not always. And in time, not even these three creatures will be killed." [27]

Edicts of Ashoka on 1st Major Rock Edict

"Twenty-six years after my coronation various animals were declared to be protected—parrots, mainas, aruna, ruddy geese, wild ducks, nandimukhas, gelatas, bats, queen ants, terrapins, boneless fish, vedareyaka, gangapuputaka, sankiya fish, tortoises, porcupines, squirrels, deer, bulls, okapinda, wild asses, wild pigeons, domestic pigeons and all four-footed creatures that are neither useful nor edible. Those nanny goats, ewes and sows which are with young or giving milk to their young are protected, and so are young ones less than six months old. Cocks are not to be caponized, husks hiding living beings are not to be burnt and forests are not to be burnt either without reason or to kill creatures. One animal is not to be fed to another."

Edicts of Ashoka on Fifth Pillar

Theravada Buddhists used to observe the regulation of the Pali canon which allowed them to eat meat unless the animal had been slaughtered specifically for them.[28] In the Mahayana school some scriptures advocated vegetarianism; a particularly uncompromising one was the famous Lankavatara Sutra written in the fourth or fifth century AD.[29]

Greece and Europe

Pythagoras (570 BC – 495 BC) a vegetarian himself, was the inspiration for Pythagorian vegetarianism


In The Book of Daniel, Daniel, Hananiah, Mishael, and Azariah are invited to King Nebuchadnezzer's palace to be taught "the literature and language of the Chaldeans." [30] During their stay, Daniel decides to not partake in the king's food or drink and asks instead that he and his friends "be given vegetables to eat and water to drink." [31] (The King James Version of the same verse reads, "let them give us pulse to eat".) The consequence of this diet makes the four "better in appearance and fatter in flesh than all the youths who ate the king’s food", creating a vegetarian-based health narrative that is even further reinforced by how the story ends. "So the steward took away their food and the wine they were to drink, and gave them vegetables." [32]


In Greece during classical antiquity the vegetarian diet was called abstinence from beings with a soul (Greek ἀποχὴ ἐμψύχων).[33] As a principle or deliberate way of life it was always limited to a rather small number of practitioners belonging to specific philosophical schools or certain religious groups.[34]

The earliest European/Asian Minor references to a vegetarian diet occur in Homer (Odyssey 9, 82–104) and Herodotus (4, 177), who mention the Lotophagi (Lotus-eaters), an indigenous people on the North African coast, who according to Herodotus lived on nothing but the fruits of a plant called lotus. Diodorus Siculus (3, 23–24) transmits tales of vegetarian peoples or tribes in Ethiopia, and further stories of this kind are narrated and discussed in ancient sources.[35]

The earliest reliable evidence for vegetarian theory and practice in Greece dates from the 6th century BC. The Orphics, a religious movement spreading in Greece at that time, and Pythagoras, a philosopher and religious leader in the area of Southern Italy colonized by Greek settlers, abstained from the flesh of animals.[36] The followers of Pythagoras (called Pythagoreans) did not always practice strict vegetarianism, but at least their inner circle did. For the general public, abstention from meat was a hallmark of the so-called "Pythagorean way of life".[37] Both Orphics and strict Pythagoreans also avoided eggs and shunned the ritual offerings of meat to the gods which were an essential part of traditional religious sacrifice.[38] In the 5th century BC the philosopher Empedocles distinguished himself as a radical advocate of vegetarianism specifically and of respect for animals in general.[39]

The question of whether there are any ethical duties toward animals was hotly debated, and the arguments in dispute were quite similar to the ones familiar in modern discussions on animal rights.[40] Vegetarianism was usually part and parcel of religious convictions connected with the concept of transmigration of the soul (metempsychosis).[41] There was a widely held belief, popular among both vegetarians and non-vegetarians, that in the Golden Age of the beginning of humanity mankind was strictly non-violent. In that utopian state of the world hunting, livestock breeding, and meat-eating, as well as agriculture were unknown and unnecessary, as the earth spontaneously produced in abundance all the food its inhabitants needed.[42] This myth is recorded by Hesiod (Works and Days 109sqq.), Plato (Statesman 271–2), the famous Roman poet Ovid (Metamorphoses 1,89sqq.), and others. Ovid also praised the Pythagorean ideal of universal nonviolence (Metamorphoses 15,72sqq.).

Some prominent Stoics, such as Zeno (the founder of Stoicism), Ovid, and Seneca, refrained from eating animals. Although Stoics believed that animals were on an ontologically lower level than humans, there were other reasons for not eating animal flesh, such as ascetic simplicity and its being unnecessary for human nutrition.[43] As for the followers of the Cynic School, their extremely frugal way of life entailed a practically meatless diet, but they did not make vegetarianism their maxim.[44]

In the Platonic Academy the scholarchs (school heads) Xenocrates and (probably) Polemon pleaded for vegetarianism.[45] In the Peripatetic school Theophrastus, Aristotle's immediate successor, supported it.[46] Some of the prominent Platonists and Neo-Platonists in the age of the Roman Empire lived on a vegetarian diet. These included Plutarch (who seems to have adopted vegetarianism only temporarily), Apollonius of Tyana, Plotinus, and Porphyry.[47] Porphyry wrote a treatise On abstinence from beings with a soul, the most elaborate ancient pro-vegetarian text known to us.[48]

Among the Manicheans, a major religious movement founded in the third century AD, there was an elite group called Electi (the chosen) who were Lacto-Vegetarians for ethical reasons and abode by a commandment which strictly banned killing. Common Manicheans called Auditores (Hearers) obeyed looser rules of nonviolence.[49]

East and Southeast Asia


The religions of Chinese Buddhism and Taoism require that monks and nuns eat an egg free, onion free vegetarian diet. Since abbeys were usually self-sufficient, in practice this meant they ate a vegan diet. Many religious orders also avoid hurting plant life by avoiding root vegetables. This is not just seen as an ascetic practice, but Chinese spirituality generally believes that animals have immortal souls, and that a diet of mostly grain is the healthiest for humans.

In Chinese folk religions as well as the aforementioned faiths, people often eat vegan on the 1st and 15th of the month, as well as the eve of Chinese New Year. Some nonreligious people do this as well. This is similar to the Christian practice of lent and not eating meat on Friday. The percentage of people permanently being pure vegetarian is about the same as the modern Anglosphere, but this percentage has not really changed for a very long time. Many people eat vegan for a certain amount of time in order to make up for the belief that they have sinned.

Foods like seitan, tofu skin, meat alternatives made from seaweeds, root vegetable starch and, tofu, originate in China and became popularized because so many people periodically abstain from meat. In China, one can find an eggless vegetarian substitute for items ranging from seafood to ham. Also, the Thai (เจ) and Vietnamese (chay) terms for vegetarianism originate from the Chinese term for a lenten diet.


In 675, the use of livestock and the consumption of some wild animals (horse, cattle, dogs, monkeys, birds) was banned in Japan by Emperor Temmu, due to the influence of Buddhism.[50] Subsequently, in the year 737 of the Nara period, the Emperor Seimu approved the eating of fish and shellfish. During the twelve hundred years from the Nara period to the Meiji restoration in the latter half of the 19th century, Japanese people enjoyed vegetarian-style meals. They usually ate rice as staple food and beans and vegetables. It was only on special occasions or celebrations that fish was served. Over this period, the Japanese people (particularly Buddhist monks) developed a vegetarian cuisine called Shojin-ryori which was native to Japan. 'Ryori' means cooking or cuisine, while 'Shojin' is a Japanese translation of 'virya' in Sanskrit, meaning "to have the goodness and keep away evils".[51]

During the Meiji restoration, and the opening up of Japan to Western influence, Emperor Meiji lifted the ban on red meat [52]

Orthodox Christianity

In Greek-Orthodox Christianity (Greece, Cyprus, Russia, Serbia and other Orthodox countries), adherents eat a diet completely free of animal products for fasting periods (except for honey) as well as all types of oil and alcohol, during a strict fasting period.

Christian antiquity and Middle Ages

The leaders of the early Christians in the apostolic era (James, Peter and John) were concerned that eating food sacrificed to idols (and the only food sacrificed to idols was meat) might result in ritual pollution. The Apostle Paul emphatically rejected that view, which resulted in division of an Early Church (Romans 14:2-21; compare 1 Corinthians 8:8-9, Colossians 2:20-22).[53][54]

Many early Christians were vegetarian such as Clement of Alexandria, Origen, John Chrysostom, Basil the Great, and others.[55][56] Some early church writings suggest that Matthew, Peter & James were vegetarian. The historian Eusebius writes that the Apostle "Matthew partook of seeds, nuts and vegetables, without flesh."[57] The philosopher Porphyry wrote an entire book entitled On Abstinence from Animal Food which compiled most of the classical thought on the subject.[58][59]

In late antiquity and in the Middle Ages many monks and hermits renounced meat-eating in the context of their asceticism.[60] The most prominent of them was St Jerome († 419), whom they used to take as their model.[61] The Rule of St Benedict (6th century) allowed the Benedictines to eat fish and fowl, but forbade the consumption of the meat of quadrupeds unless the religious was ill.[62] Many other rules of religious orders contained similar restrictions of diet, some of which even included fowl, but fish was never prohibited, as Jesus himself had eaten fish (Luke 24:42-43). The concern of those monks and nuns was frugality, voluntary privation, and self-mortification.[63] William of Malmesbury writes that Bishop Wulfstan of Worcester (d. 1095) decided to adhere to a strict vegetarian diet simply because he found it difficult to resist the smell of roasted goose.[64] Saint Genevieve, the Patron Saint of Paris, is mentioned as having observed a vegetarian diet - but as an act of physical austerity, rather than out of concern for animals. Medieval hermits, at least those portrayed in literature, may have been vegetarians for similar reasons, as suggested in a passage from Sir Thomas Malory's Le Morte d'Arthur: 'Then departed Gawain and Ector as heavy (sad) as they might for their misadventure (mishap), and so rode till that they came to the rough mountain, and there they tied their horses and went on foot to the hermitage. And when they were (had) come up, they saw a poor house, and beside the chapel a little courtelage (courtyard), where Nacien the hermit gathered worts (vegetables), as he which had tasted none other meat (food) of a great while.'[65]

John Passmore claimed that there was no surviving textual evidence for ethically motivated vegetarianism in either ancient and medieval Catholicism or in the Eastern Churches. There were instances of compassion to animals, but no explicit objection to the act of slaughter per se. The most influential theologians, St Augustine and St Thomas Aquinas, emphasized that man owes no duties to animals.[5] Although St. Francis of Assisi described animal beings with mystic language, contemporary sources do not claim that he practised or advocated vegetarianism.[66]

Many ancient intellectual dissidents, such as the Encratites, the Ebionites, and the Eustathians who followed the fourth century monk Eustathius of Antioch, considered abstention from meat-eating an essential part of their asceticism.[67] Medieval Paulician Adoptionists, such as the Bogomils ("Friends of God") of the Thrace area in Bulgaria and the Christian dualist Cathars, also despised the consumption of meat.[68]

Early modern period

Leonardo da Vinci (1452–1519) was among the first celebrities from the European Renaissance era who supported vegetarianism

It was not before the European Renaissance that vegetarianism reemerged in Europe as a philosophical concept based on an ethical motivation. Among the first celebrities who supported it were Leonardo da Vinci (1452–1519)[69] and Pierre Gassendi (1592–1655).[70] In the 17th century the paramount theorist of the meatless or Pythagorean diet was the English writer Thomas Tryon (1634–1703).[71] On the other hand, influential philosophers such as René Descartes[72] (1596–1650) and Immanuel Kant[73] (1724–1804) were of the opinion that there cannot be any ethical duties whatsoever toward animals - though Kant also observes that "He who is cruel to animals becomes hard also in his dealings with men. We can judge the heart of a man by his treatment of animals." By the end of the 18th century in England the claim that animals were made only for man's use (anthropocentrism) was still being advanced, but no longer carried general assent. Very soon, it would disappear altogether.[74]

In the United States, there were small groups of Christian vegetarians in the 18th century. The best known of them was Ephrata Cloister in Pennsylvania, a religious community founded by Conrad Beissel in 1732.[75] Benjamin Franklin (one of the Founding Fathers of the United States) became a vegetarian at the age of 16, but later on he reluctantly returned to meat eating.[76] He later introduced Tofu to America in 1770. [77] Colonel Thomas Crafts Jr. (who read The Declaration of Independence in Boston, 1776) was a vegetarian.[78]

19th century

Gustav Struve, German revolutionary and a leading figure in the initial stage of the German vegetarian movement.

During the Age of Enlightenment and in the early nineteenth century, England was the place where vegetarian ideas were more welcome than anywhere else in Europe, and the English vegetarians were particularly enthusiastic about the practical implementation of their principles.[79] In England, vegetarianism was strongest in the northern and middle regions, specifically urbanized areas.[80] As vegetarianism spread across the country, more working-class people began to identify as vegetarians, though still a small number in comparison to the number of meat eaters in the country.[81] Though there were established groups all across England, the movement failed to gain popular support and was drowned out by other, more exciting, struggles of the late-nineteenth century.[82]

A prominent advocate of an ethically motivated vegetarianism in the early 19th century was the poet Percy Bysshe Shelley (1792–1822).[83]

In England, Reverend William Cowherd founded the Bible Christian Church in 1809. Cowherd advocated vegetarianism as a form of temperance and was one of the philosophical forerunners of the Vegetarian Society.[84] This was the first vegetarian society, of the modern western world, and was established in 1847.[85] The Society was founded by the 140 participants of a conference at Ramsgate and by 1853 had 889 members.[86] By the end of the century, the group had attracted almost 4,000 members.[87] After its first year, alone, the group grew to 265 members that ranged from ages 14 to 76.[88] English vegetarians were a small but highly motivated and active group. Many of them believed in a simple life and "pure" food, humanitarian ideals and strict moral principles.[89] Not all members of the Vegetarian Society were "Cowherdites", though they constituted about half of the group.[88]

Class played prominent roles in the Victorian vegetarian movement. There was somewhat of a disconnect when the upper-middle class attempted to reach out to the working and lower classes. Though the meat industry was growing substantially, many working class Britons had mostly vegetarian diets out of necessity rather than out of the desire to improve their health and morals. The working and middle classes did not have the luxury being able to choose what they would eat and they believed that a mixed diet was a valuable source of energy.[90]

Tied closely with other social reform movements, women were especially visible as the "mascot". When late-Victorians sought to promote their cause in journal, female angels or healthy English women were the images most commonly depicted.[91] Two prominent female vegetarians were Elizabeth Horsell, author of a vegetarian cookbook and lecturer, and Jane Hurlstone. Hurlstone was active in Owenism, animal welfare, and Italian nationalism as well. Though women were regularly overshadowed by men, noted the newspaper the Vegetarian Advocate, that women were more inclined to do work in support of vegetarianism and animal welfare than men, who tended to only speak on the matter. In a domestic setting, women promoted vegetarianism though cooking vegetarian dishes for public dinners and arranging entertainment that promoted the cause.[92] Outside of the domestic sphere, Victorian women edited vegetarian journals, wrote articles, lectured, and wrote cookbooks. Of the 26 vegetarian cookbooks published during the Victorian Age, 14 were written by women.[93]

In 1895, The Women's Vegetarian Union was established by Alexandrine Veigele, a French woman living in London. The organization aimed to promote a ‘purer and simpler’ diet and they regularly reached out to the working class.[94]

The morality arguments behind vegetarianism in Victorians England drew idealists from various causes together. Specifically, many vegetarian women identified as feminists. In her novel, Herland (1915), Charlotte Perkins Gilman desired to have a vegetarian society in her utopia. Margaret Fuller also advocated for vegetarianism in her work, Women of the Nineteenth Century (1845).[95] She argued that when women are liberated from domestic life, they would help transform the violent male society, and vegetarianism would become the dominant diet. Frances Power Cobbe, a co-founder of the British Union for Abolition of Vivisection, identified as a vegetarian and was a well-known activist for feminism. Many of her colleagues in the first-wave feminist movement also identified as vegetarians.[96]

In the United States, Reverend William Metcalfe (1788–1862), a pacifist and a prominent member of the Bible Christian Church, preached vegetarianism.[97] He and Sylvester Graham, the mentor of the Grahamites and inventor of the Graham crackers, were among the founders of the American Vegetarian Society in 1850.[98] Ellen G. White, one of the founders of the Seventh-day Adventist Church, became an advocate of vegetarianism, and the Church has recommended a meatless diet ever since.[99]

In Russia, Leo Tolstoy (1828–1910) was the most outstanding supporter of vegetarianism.[100]

In Germany, the well-known politician, publicist and revolutionist Gustav Struve (1805–1870) was a leading figure in the initial stage of the vegetarian movement. He was inspired by Rousseau's treatise Émile.[101] Many vegetarian associations were founded in the last third of the century and the Order of the Golden Age went on to achieve particular prominence beyond the Food Reform movement.[102] In 1886, a German colonist couple, Elisabeth Förster-Nietzsche and Bernhard Förster, emigrated to the Paraguayan rainforest and founded Nueva Germania to put to practice utopian ideas about vegetarianism, feminism and the superiority of the Aryan race, though the vegetarian aspect would prove short-lived.[103][104]:345–358

Vegetarianism was frequently associated with cultural reform movements, such as temperance and anti-vivisection. It was propagated as an essential part of "the natural way of life." Some of its champions sharply criticized the civilization of their age and strove to improve public health.[105] A newspaper reported in March 1880 that a vegetarian restaurant had existed in Manchester for some years and one had just opened in Oxford Street, London.[106]

20th century

The International Vegetarian Union, a union of the national societies, was founded in 1908. In the Western world, the popularity of vegetarianism grew during the 20th century as a result of nutritional, ethical, and more recently, environmental and economic concerns. Henry Stephens Salt[107] (1851-1939) and George Bernard Shaw (1856-1950) were famous vegetarian activists.[108]

Cranks opened in Carnaby Street, London, in 1961, as the first successful vegetarian restaurant in the UK. Eventually there were 5 Cranks restaurants in London which closed in 2001.[109][110]

The Indian concept of nonviolence had a growing impact in the Western world. The model of Mahatma Gandhi, a strong and uncompromising advocate of nonviolence toward animals, contributed to the popularization of vegetarianism in Western countries.[111] The study of Far-Eastern religious and philosophical concepts of nonviolence was also instrumental in the shaping of Albert Schweitzer's principle of "reverence for life", which is still today a common argument in discussions on ethical aspects of diet. But Schweitzer himself started to practise vegetarianism only shortly before his death.[112]

Current situation

Today Indian vegetarians, primarily lacto-vegetarians, are estimated to make up more than 70 percent of the world's vegetarians. They make up 20–42 percent of the population in India, while less than 30 percent are regular meat-eaters.[113][114][115]

Surveys in the U.S. have found that roughly 1–2.8 percent of adults eat no meat, poultry, or fish.[116][117][118][119]

In 2013, PS 244 in Queens became the first public school in New York to adopt an all-vegetarian menu. Meals still meet the required USDA protein standards.[120]

Historians of vegetarianism

Writers of advocacy histories

See also


  1. Definition from vegsoc.org "A vegetarian is someone living on a diet of grains, pulses, nuts, seeds, vegetables and fruits with or without the use of dairy products and eggs. A vegetarian does not eat any meat, poultry, game, fish, shellfish or crustacea, or slaughter by-products."
  2. 1 2 Spencer, Colin: The Heretic's Feast. A History of Vegetarianism, London 1993
  3. Spencer p. 33-68.
  4. Religious Vegetarianism From Hesiod to the Dalai Lama, ed. Kerry S. Walters and Lisa Portmess, Albany 2001, p. 13-46.
  5. 1 2 Passmore, John: The Treatment of Animals, in: Journal of the History of Ideas 36 (1975) p. 196-201.
  6. Lutterbach, Hubertus: Der Fleischverzicht im Christentum, in: Saeculum 50/II (1999) p. 202.
  7. Spencer p. 180-200.
  8. Mintel Oxygen, "Attitudes Towards Vegetarianism - UK - december 2006"
  9. Bhaskarananda, Swami (2002). The Essentials of Hinduism. Seattle: The Vedanta Society of Western Washington. p. 59. ISBN 1884852041.
  10. Bühler, G. (1886). The Laws of Manu. The Oxford University Press.
  11. Waley p. 348.
  12. Gherand Samhita 5.17-21.
  13. Bhagavad Gita 3.13.
  14. Mahabharata 12.257 (or 12.265 according to another count); Bhagavad Gita 9.26; Bhagavata Purana 7.15.7.
  15. Spencer p. 78-84; Tähtinen p. 106-107; Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics vol. 1 p. 231.
  16. Tähtinen p. 132.
  17. Alsdorf, Ludwig: Beiträge zur Geschichte von Vegetarismus und Rinderverehrung in Indien, Wiesbaden 1962, p. 561-576.
  18. Alsdorf p. 561-564.
  19. Kapleau, Philip: To Cherish All Life, Rochester (N.Y.) 1981, p. 29-33; Page, Tony: Buddhism and Animals, London 1999; Phelps, Norm: The Great Compassion, New York 2004, p. 73-84.
  20. Tähtinen p. 110-111; Phelps p. 55-70.
  21. Phelps p. 55-60.
  22. 1 2 Phelps p. 75-77, 83-84.
  23. Phelps p. 80-82; Waley, Arthur: Did Buddha die of eating pork?, in: Mélanges chinois et bouddhiques, vol. 1931/32, p. 343-354.
  24. http://ccbs.ntu.edu.tw/FULLTEXT/JR-MEL/waley.htm
  25. Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics vol. 1 p. 231.
  26. Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics vol. 2 p. 124-125; Spencer p. 85-86; Tähtinen p. 37, 107, 111.
  27. http://www.katinkahesselink.net/tibet/asoka1.html
  28. Phelps p. 78, Spencer p. 83-84.
  29. Tähtinen p. 111; Phelps p. 59-66; Shabkar Tsogdruk Rangdrol, Food of Bodhisattvas, Boston 2004, p. 47-77.
  30. The Book of Daniel Chapter 1, English Standard Version
  31. The Book of Daniel 1:12, English Standard Version
  32. The Book of Daniel 1:16, English Standard Version
  33. Haussleiter, Johannes: Der Vegetarismus in der Antike, Berlin 1935, p. 85, 101, 318.
  34. Haussleiter p. 33-53.
  35. Haussleiter p. 26-33.
  36. Spencer p. 38-55, 61-63; Haussleiter p. 79-157.
  37. Spencer p. 33, 64-68, Haussleiter p. 124-127.
  38. Haussleiter p. 85-86, 106, 100, 109-111; Spencer p. 54-55.
  39. Haussleiter p. 157-163; Sorabji, Richard: Animal Minds and Human Morals, London 1993, p. 174-175; Spencer p. 63-64.
  40. Haussleiter p. 198-342, Sorabji p. 107-169.
  41. Sorabji p. 172-175, Spencer p. 43, 50, 51, 61, 64.
  42. Haussleiter p. 54-64.
  43. http://advocacy.britannica.com/blog/advocacy/2010/08/the-hidden-history-of-greco-roman-vegetarianism/
  44. Haussleiter p. 167-184, Sorabji p. 158-161.
  45. Haussleiter p. 198-201, 205; Sorabji p. 178, 209.
  46. Haussleiter p. 237-244; Sorabji p. 175-178.
  47. Haussleiter p. 212-228, 299-312, 315-337; Sorabji p. 178-179, 180-188.
  48. Porphyre, De l’abstinence, ed. Jean Bouffartigue and Michel Patillon, vol. 1-3, Paris 1977-1995 (Greek text with French translation and introduction).
  49. Spencer p. 136-148, Sorabji p. 196-197.
  50. Hisao Nagayama. 「たべもの江戸史」 新人物往来社, 1976. ISBN 4309473105 p. 66. 『、「牛馬犬猿鶏の宍(肉)を食うことなかれ」の殺生禁断の令は有名拍車をかけたのが仏教の影響である。』
  51. Mitsuru Kakimoto. International Vegetarian Union, http://www.ivu.org/news/3-98/japan1.html
  52. John Toland. Rising Sun, 1970. ISBN 0-394-44311-X.
  53. Lutterbach, Hubertus: Der Fleischverzicht im Christentum, in: Saeculum 50/II (1999) p. 181-183; Spencer p. 113-114.
  54. Nelson's Illustrated Bible Dictionary, Thomas Nelson Publishers, 1986, "Meat".
  55. Vegetarian Christian Saints, September 1, 2004, by Holly H. Roberts
  56. Christian vegetarianism
  57. Clement of Alexandria (c. 198). Paedagogus, Book II Chapter I -- On Eating. Christian Classics Ethereal Library. Retrieved 2016-08-18. [T]he apostle Matthew partook of seeds, and nuts, and vegetables, without flesh.
  58. [Sextus Empiricus: Against the Physicists. Against the Ethicists. (Loeb Classical Library No. 311) by Sextus Empiricus and R. G. Bury, Harvard University Press; xlibrary edition (January 31, 1936)]
  59. cited critically by Tertullian in "Porphyry, On abstinence from animal food" (1823), Book 2. pp.45-80
  60. Lutterbach p. 189-194; Spencer p. 118-129.
  61. Lutterbach p. 185-189.
  62. Regula Benedicti 36,9 and 39,11, ed. Rudolph Hanslik, Vienna 1975, p. 96, 100.
  63. Lutterbach p. 194-198, 203-208.
  64. William of Malmesbury, Vita S. Wulfstani, Book III, Ch. 2; Fleming, "The new wealth", p. 5.
  65. Sir Thomas Malory, Le Morte d'Arthur 16.3
  66. Spencer p. 172-174, Passmore p. 199-200.
  67. Spencer p. 135-136.
  68. Spencer p. 154-168.
  69. Spencer p. 190-192; Gregerson, Jon: Vegetarianism. A History, Fremont 1994, p. 56-59.
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  72. Spencer p. 201-202; Stuart p. 131-137.
  73. Sorabji p. 128-129.
  74. Keith Thomas (1984) Man and the natural world changing attitudes in England 1500-1800, p.297.
  75. Iacobbo, Karen and Michael: Vegetarian America. A History, Westport (CT) 2004, p. 3-7.
  76. Iacobbo p. 1-2, Stuart p. 243-244.
  77. http://www.mnn.com/food/healthy-eating/blogs/you-can-thank-ben-franklin-for-introducing-tofu-to-america
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  83. Spencer p. 244-251; Stuart p. 372-398.
  84. "The Bible Christian Church". International Vegetarian Union.
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  89. Spencer p. 262-266.
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  98. Iacobbo p. 13-74.
  99. Iacobbo p. 97-99.
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  106. "Miscellaneous". The Cornishman (87). 11 March 1880. p. 6.
  107. Gregerson p. 78-79.
  108. Spencer p. 279-282.
  109. Obituary of Kay Canter
  110. "Death of a 'Crank'"
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  112. Albert Schweitzer in a letter of 1964, quoted by Gotthard M. Teutsch: Mensch und Tier – Lexikon der Tierschutzethik, Göttingen 1987, p. 47.
  113. Indian consumer patterns
  114. Agri reform in India
  115. Diary and poultry sector growth in India
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