George Cœdès

George Cœdès, pronounced sedɛs, (10 August 1886 – 2 October 1969) was a 20th-century French scholar of southeast Asian archaeology and history.


Cœdès was born in Paris to a family of supposed Hungarian-Jewish emigres.[1] In fact, the family was known as having settled in the region of Strasbourg (France) before 1740. His ancestors worked for the royal Treasury.[2] His grandfather, Louis Eugène Cœdès was a painter, pupil of Léon Coignet. His father Hyppolite worked as a banker. Cœdès became director of the National Library of Thailand in 1918, and in 1929 became director of L'École française d'Extrême-Orient, where he remained until 1946. Thereafter he lived in Paris until he died in 1969. In 1935 he married Neang Yao. He wrote two seminal texts in the field, The Indianized States of Southeast Asia (1968, 1975) (first published in 1948 as Les états hindouisés d'Indochine et d'Indonésie) and The Making of South East Asia (1966), as well as innumerable articles, in which he developed the concept of the Indianized kingdom. However, the modern consensus is that the Indianization was less complete than Cœdès had believed, with many indigenous practices surviving underneath the Indian surface. Perhaps his greatest lasting scholarly accomplishment was his work on Sanskrit and Old Khmer inscriptions from Cambodia. In addition to scores of articles (especially in the Bulletin of the École française d'Extrême-Orient), his 8-volume work Inscriptions du Cambodge (1937-1966) contains editions and translations of over a thousand inscriptions from pre-Angkorian and Angkor-era monuments, and stands as Cœdès' magnum opus. The transliteration system that he devised for Thai (and Khmer) is used by specialists of Thai and other writing systems derived from that of Khmer.

George Cœdès is credited with rediscovering the former kingdom of Srivijaya, centred on the modern-day Indonesian city of Palembang, but with influence extending from Sumatra through to the Malay Peninsula and Java. Some Indonesians, including those of the Palembang area, had not heard of Srivijaya until the 1920s, when Cœdès published his discoveries and interpretations in Dutch and Indonesian-language newspapers.[3] However, among the educated elite and nobility the history of successive kingdoms and their fates and royal lineage were well known.[4]


Cœdès received the following decorations:


  1. Alatas, Farid, et al. (2004)Asia in Europe, Europe in Asia International Institute for Asian Studies, Institute of Southeast Asian Studies ISBN 981-230-206-9
  2. Cœdès family archives
  3. Taylor, Jean Gelman (2003). Indonesia: Peoples and Histories. New Haven and London: Yale University Press. pp. 8–9. ISBN 0-300-10518-5.
  4. OHre, Martin (1986). Majapahit's Influence over WWanin in New Guinea in the Fourteenth Century, Bachelor of Letters Thesis (PDF). Canberra, Australia: Australian National University. pp. 8–9. ISBN 0-300-10518-5.
  5. The Royal Gazette, Vol. 46, Page 3425. 29 December, B.E 2472 (C.E. 1929). Retrieved on 20 November 2008.


Further reading

See also

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