East Java

East Java
Jawa Timur
Jåwå Wétan
Clockwise, from top left : Mount Bromo, Lake Sarangan, Bande Alit beach, Batu Secret Zoo


Motto: Jer Basuki Mawa Béya (Javanese)
(meaning: Sacrifices are needed to gain a greatness)

Location of East Java in Indonesia
Coordinates: 7°16′S 112°45′E / 7.267°S 112.750°E / -7.267; 112.750Coordinates: 7°16′S 112°45′E / 7.267°S 112.750°E / -7.267; 112.750
Country  Indonesia
Capital Surabaya
  Governor Soekarwo
  Vice Governor Saifullah Yusuf
  Total 47,799.75 km2 (18,455.59 sq mi)
Population (2014)[1]
  Total 38,529,481
  Density 810/km2 (2,100/sq mi)
  Ethnic groups Javanese (80%), Madurese (18%), Chinese (2%)[2]
  Religion Islam (96.36%), Christianity (2.4%), Buddhism (0.6%), Hinduism (0.5%), Confucianism (0.1%), Kejawen also practised[3]
  Languages Indonesian (official), Javanese languages (Arekan & Osing), Madurese (regional)
Time zone WIB (UTC+7)
Vehicle registration AE, AG, L, M, N, P, S, W
HDI Decrease 0.681 (Medium)
HDI rank 17th (2014)
Website www.jatimprov.go.id

East Java (Indonesian: Jawa Timur, abbreviated as Jatim, Javanese: Jåwå Wétan)[4] is a province of Indonesia. Located in eastern Java, it includes the islands of Madura, which is connected to Java by the longest bridge in Indonesia, Suramadu Bridge, as well as the Kangean and Masalembu archipelagos located further east and north, respectively. Its capital is Surabaya, the second largest city in Indonesia and a major industrial center. Banyuwangi is the largest regency in East java and also in Java Island

It covers an area of 47,800 km2, According to the 2010 Census estimates, there were 37,476,757 people residing in the East Java, making it Indonesia's second-most-populous province; the latest official estimates (for January 2014) is 38,529,481.

It has a land border only with the province of Central Java to the west; Java Sea and Indian Ocean border its northern and southern coasts, respectively, while the narrow Bali Strait to the east separates Java from Bali.


The history of East Java was substantially of the Majapahit Kingdom - which reached its golden age under Hayam Wuruk in 1350–1389. However, after his death, Majapahit was ruined by other kingdoms.

Following the European occupation, the kingdom was replaced by the Residency system. There were eight Residencies within East Java: Bojonegoro, Madiun, Kediri, Malang, Surabaya, Probolinggo, Besuki and Madura.

In November 1947, a State of East Java was formed under Dutch auspices as part of the United States of Indonesia. After the Dutch-Indonesian Round Table Conference, many people demanded that the state of East Java should be dissolved and become a part of the Republic of Indonesia.

Administrative divisions

East Java is divided into 29 kabupaten (or regencies), and 9 kotamadya (or cities). This list of regions with their areas and populations at the 2000 and 2010[5] and at the latest (January 2014) census estimates:

Name Capital Area
2000 Census
2010 Census
2014 estimate
Mojokerto City 16.47 108,938 120,196 123,572
Pasuruan City 35.29 168,323 186,262 191,494
Surabaya City 350.54 2,599,796 2,765,487 2,843,144
Gresik Regency
(includes Bawean Island)
Gresik 1,191.25 1,005,445 1,177,042 1,210,105
Lamongan Regency Lamongan 1,782.05 1,181,660 1,179,059 1,212,179
Mojokerto Regency Mojosari 717.83 908,004 1,025,443 1,054,248
Pasuruan Regency Bangil 1,474.02 1,366,605 1,512,468 1,554,956
Sidoarjo Regency Sidoarjo 634.38 1,563,015 1,941,497 1,996,034
Surabaya Sub-regional Totals 6,201.83 8,901,786 9,907,454 10,185,732
Madiun City 33.92 163,956 170,964 175,767
Bojonegoro Regency Bojonegoro 2,198.79 1,165,401 1,209,973 1,243,961
Jombang Regency Jombang 1,115.09 1,126,930 1,202,407 1,236,184
Madiun Regency Mejayan 1,037.58 639,825 662,278 680,881
Magetan Regency Magetan 688.84 615,254 620,442 637,872
Nganjuk Regency Nganjuk 1,224.25 973,472 1,017,030 1,045,598
Ngawi Regency Ngawi 1,295.98 813,228 817,765 840,736
Tuban Regency Tuban 1,834.15 1,051,999 1,118,464 1,149,882
Northwest Sub-regional Totals 9,428.60 6,550,065 6,819,323 7,010,881
Probolinggo City 56.67 191,522 217,062 223,159
Banyuwangi Regency Banyuwangi 5,782.40 1,488,791 1,556,078 1,599,788
Bondowoso Regency Bondowoso 1,525.97 688,651 736,772 757,468
Jember Regency Jember 3,092.34 2,187,657 2,332,726 2,398,252
Lumajang Regency Lumajang 1,790.90 965,192 1,006,458 1,034,730
Probolinggo Regency Kraksaan 1,696.21 1,004,967 1,096,244 1,127,041
Situbondo Regency Situbondo 1,669.87 603,705 647,619 665,818
Far Southeast Sub-regional Totals 15,614.36 7,130,485 7,592,959 7,806,256
Batu City 136.74 (included in
Malang Regency)
190,184 195,526
Blitar City 32.57 119,372 131,968 135,675
Kediri City 63.40 244,519 268,507 276,051
Malang City 145.28 756,982 820,243 843,284
Blitar Regency Kanigoro 1,336.48 1,064,643 1,116,639 1,148,005
Kediri Regency Ngasem 1,386.05 1,408,353 1,499,768 1,541,897
Malang Regency Kepanjen 3,530.65 2,412,570 2,446,218 2,514,932
Pacitan Regency Pacitan 1,389.92 525,758 540,881 556,074
Ponorogo Regency Ponorogo 1,305.70 841,449 855,281 879,306
Trenggalek Regency Trenggalek 1,147.22 649,883 674,411 693,355
Tulungagung Regency Tulungagung 1,055.65 929,833 990,158 1,017,972
Southern Sub-regional Totals 11,529.66 8,953,362 9,534,258 9,802,077
East Java
(excluding Madura) Totals
42,774.45 31,535,693 33,853,994 34,804,946
Bangkalan Regency Bangkalan 1,001.44 805,048 906,761 932,232
Pamekasan Regency Pamekasan 792.24 689,225 795,918 818,283
Sampang Regency Sampang 1,233.08 750,046 877,772 902,429
Sumenep Regency Sumenep 1,998.54 985,981 1,042,312 1,071,591
Madura Totals 5,025.30 3,230,300 3,622,763 3,724,535
Total for Province 47,799.75 34,765,993 37,476,757 38,529,481


Historical population
1971 25,516,999    
1980 29,188,852+14.4%
1990 32,503,991+11.4%
1995 33,844,002+4.1%
2000 34,783,640+2.8%
2010 37,476,757+7.7%
2014 38,529,481+2.8%
Source: Badan Pusat Statistik 2010, 2014 Health Ministry[1]

According to the 2000 census, East Java had 34,765,993 people, which increased to 37,476,757 people at the 2010 Census,[6] making it the second most populous Indonesian province after West Java. Akin to Central Java, the region's birth rates are not necessarily any lower than the rest of Java, however due to net population outflows, especially in times of calamity, not limited to volcanic eruptions or droughts, the region has varying rates of population growth that are generally lower than national average. Ethnic Javanese dominate the Java mainland as well as the total population of the province overall, while ethnic Madurese inhabit Madura and the Kangean and Masalembu archipelagos, though centuries of migrations have led the Java mainland to have a larger proportion of Madurese people than Madura itself. Minorities include distinct Javanese ethnicities such as the Tengger people in Bromo, the Samin and the Osing people in Banyuwangi. East Java also hosts a significant population of foreign ethnic groups, such as Chinese, Indians, and Arabs.


Besides the formal language, Indonesian, East Java people use Javanese as daily language. Javanese as spoken in the western part of East Java (Kulonan) is a similar dialect to the one spoken in Central Java, with its hierarchy of high, medium, and low registers. In the eastern part, such as Surabaya, Malang, and others, a more egalitarian version of Javanese is spoken, with less regard of hierarchy and a richer vocabulary for vulgarity. The dialect is notable for its roughness compared to other dialects spoken elsewhere in Java (especially the Mataram dialect spoken around Surakarta and Yogyakarta, which is renowned for its smoothness) and contributes to the stereotype among Javanese people of East Javanese being "blunt" and "loud". Variants of Javanese are also used by Osing and Tengger minorities, the former utilizing a Balinese-influenced Javanese by virtue of its closeness with Bali island, and the latter speaking an archaic form of the language that retains many features now lost in other more-innovative Javanese dialects.

Other than Javanese, minority language includes Madurese, spoken by around 15 million ethnic Madurese people inhabiting Madura and the Kangean and Masalembu Islands. Though they live practically next door with the Javanese, the language is actually more closer genetically to Balinese, Malay, and Sundanese.


A long time ago, Hinduism and Buddhism dominated the island until Islam gradually supplanted Hinduism in the 14th and 15th century. The last nobles and people of the fallen Majapahit fled to Bali. Islam spread from northern cities in Java where many Muslim traders from Gujarat, India stopped by. The eastern part of East Java, from Surabaya to Pasuruan, and the cities along the coast, and back to Banyuwangi to Jember, are known as the eastern salient, or "Kawasan Tapal Kuda" (The Horseshoe region).

A remnant of Hindu tradition and syncretic abangan is exist because of Islamic and Hinduism acculturation in Java.

Natural resources


East Java has a famous seaport Tanjung Perak, Surabaya. in 2013, the government planned to build 4 seaports: in Lamongan, Gresik, Tanjung Tembaga in Probolinggo and Tanjung Wangi in Banyuwangi.[7]


East Java hosts famous universities in Indonesia, both owned by government and private. Three major cities for universities are Surabaya, Malang, and Jember; there is also a university at Bangkalan on Madura island. Among them, University of Airlangga and Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember are the most famous of the province's universities, and both are located in Surabaya.

Another important form of education that is available in most cities in East Java is the pesantren. This is a kind of socio-education organized by Islamic clerics, and associated with local or national Muslim organizations. Jombang is a famous region for its pesantren.


East Java supports several regional media outlets. Local newspapers with provincial news reach their readers earlier than their competitors from Jakarta. In the spirit of "providing more news from around readers", most newspapers even issue municipal sections which are different among their distribution areas.

National parks

Deer in Baluran National Park

Local economic governance

Based on the survey conducted between August 2010 and January 2011, East Java included 11 of the top 20 cities and regencies of the local economic governance which measures nine parameters: [8]

The top 5 were:


Rujak Cingur, traditional dish from East Java

East Java cuisine tends to be hotter than that of Central and West Java. Rujak Soto from Banyuwangi is also famous these days.


  1. 1 2 Estimasi Penduduk Menurut Umur Tunggal Dan Jenis Kelamin 2014 Kementerian Kesehatan
  2. Indonesia's Population: Ethnicity and Religion in a Changing Political Landscape. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. 2003.
  3. Keagamaan 2009
  4. Piwulang Basa Jawa Pepak, S.B. Pramono, hal 148, 2013
  5. Biro Pusat Statistik, Jakarta, 2011.
  6. "East Java vows to top Jakarta, build four ports by 2013". The Jakarta Post. 2011-06-01. Retrieved 2013-12-10.
  7. "Blitar leads economic governance survey". The Jakarta Post. 2011-06-08. Retrieved 2013-12-10.
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