Celtic languages

Formerly widespread in Europe; today Cornwall, Wales, Scotland, Ireland, Brittany, Patagonia, Nova Scotia and the Isle of Man
Linguistic classification:


  • Celtic
Proto-language: Proto-Celtic
ISO 639-5: cel
Linguasphere: 50= (phylozone)
Glottolog: celt1248[1]


Distribution of Celtic speakers:
  Hallstatt culture area, 6th century BC
  Maximal Celtic expansion, c. 275 BC
  Lusitanian area; Celtic affiliation uncertain
  Areas where Celtic languages are widely spoken in the 21st century

The Celtic languages (usually pronounced /ˈkɛltɪk/ but sometimes /ˈsɛltɪk/)[2] are descended from Proto-Celtic, or "Common Celtic"; a branch of the greater Indo-European language family.[3] The term "Celtic" was first used to describe this language group by Edward Lhuyd in 1707,[4] following Paul-Yves Pezron who had already made the explicit link between the Celts described by classical writers and the Welsh and Breton languages.[5]

Modern Celtic languages are mostly spoken on the north-western edge of Europe, notably in Ireland, Scotland, Wales, Brittany, Cornwall, and the Isle of Man, and there are also a substantial number of Welsh speakers in the Patagonia area of Argentina and there are also speakers of Scottish Gaelic on Cape Breton Island off Nova Scotia. Some people speak Celtic languages in the other Celtic diaspora areas of the United States,[6] Canada, Australia,[7] and New Zealand.[8] In all these areas, the Celtic languages are now only spoken by minorities though there are continuing efforts at revitalisation. Welsh is the only Celtic language not classified as "endangered" by UNESCO.

During the 1st millennium BC, they were spoken across much of Europe, in the Iberian Peninsula, from the Atlantic and North Sea coastlines, up to the Rhine valley and down the Danube valley to the Black Sea, the northern Balkan Peninsula and in central Asia Minor. The spread to Cape Breton and Patagonia occurred in modern times.

Living languages

SIL Ethnologue lists six "living" Celtic languages, of which four have retained a substantial number of native speakers. These are the Gaelic or Goidelic languages (i.e. the Irish language and Scottish Gaelic - both descended from Middle Irish), and the Brittonic languages (i.e. Welsh and Breton - both descended from Old Brittonic).

The other two, Cornish (a Brittonic language) and Manx (a Goidelic language), died in modern times[9][10][11] with their presumed last native speakers in 1777 and 1974 respectively. For both these languages, however, revitalisation movements have led to the adoption of these languages by adults and children and produced some native speakers.[12][13]

Taken together, there were roughly one million native speakers of Celtic languages as of the 2000s.[14] In 2010, there were more than 1.4 million speakers of Celtic languages.[15]


Language Native name Grouping Number of native speakers Number of people who have one or more skills in the language Main area(s) in which the language is spoken Regulated by/language body Estimated Number of Speakers in Major Cities
Welsh Cymraeg Brittonic 562,000 (19.0% of the population of Wales) self-certify that they "can speak Welsh" (2011)[16][17] Around 947,700 (2011) total speakers
Wales: 788,000 speakers, 26.7% of the population of Wales,[16][17]
England: 150,000[18]
Chubut Province, Argentina: 5,000[19]
United States: 2,500[20]
Canada: 2,200[21]
Y Wladfa, Chubut
Welsh Language Commissioner (Meri Huws)
— The Welsh Government
(previously the Welsh Language Board Bwrdd yr Iaith Gymraeg)
Cardiff: 54,504
Swansea: 45,085
Newport: 18,490[22]
Irish Gaeilge Goidelic 40,000–80,000[23][24][25][26]
In the Republic of Ireland, 94,000 people use Irish daily outside the education system.[27]
Republic of Ireland:
United Kingdom:
United States:
Ireland Foras na Gaeilge Dublin: 184,140
Galway: 37,614
Cork: 57,318[28]
Belfast: 30,360[29]
Breton Brezhoneg Brittonic 206,000 356,000[30] Brittany Ofis Publik ar Brezhoneg Rennes: 7,000
Brest: 40,000
Nantes: 4,000[31]
Scottish Gaelic Gàidhlig Goidelic 57,375 (2011)[32] in Scotland as well as 1,275 (2011) in Nova Scotia[33] 87,056 (2011)[32] in Scotland Scotland Bòrd na Gàidhlig Glasgow: 5,726
Edinburgh: 3,220[34]
Aberdeen: 1,397[35]
Cornish Kernowek Brittonic 600[36] 3,000[37] Cornwall Keskowethyans an Taves Kernewek Truro: 118[38]
Manx Gaelg Goidelic 100+,[12][39] including a small number of children who are new native speakers[40] 1,823[41] Isle of Man Coonceil ny Gaelgey Douglas: 507[42]

Mixed languages


Classification of Indo-European languages. (click to enlarge)

Celtic divided into various branches:

Scholarly handling of the Celtic languages has been rather argumentative owing to scarceness of primary source data. Some scholars (such as Cowgill 1975; McCone 1991, 1992; and Schrijver 1995) distinguish Continental Celtic and Insular Celtic, arguing that the differences between the Goidelic and Brittonic languages arose after these split off from the Continental Celtic languages. Other scholars (such as Schmidt 1988) distinguish between P-Celtic and Q-Celtic, putting most of the Gaulish and Brittonic languages in the former group and the Goidelic and Celtiberian languages in the latter. The P-Celtic languages (also called Gallo-Brittonic) are sometimes seen (for example by Koch 1992) as a central innovating area as opposed to the more conservative peripheral Q-Celtic languages.

The Breton language is Brittonic, not Gaulish, though there may be some input from the latter,[55] having been introduced from Southwestern regions of Britain in the post-Roman era and having evolved into Breton – still partially intelligible by modern Welsh and Cornish speakers.

In the P/Q classification schema, the first language to split off from Proto-Celtic was Gaelic. It has characteristics that some scholars see as archaic, but others see as also being in the Brittonic languages (see Schmidt). In the Insular/Continental classification schema, the split of the former into Gaelic and Brittonic is seen as being late.

The distinction of Celtic into these four sub-families most likely occurred about 900 BC according to Gray and Atkinson[56][57] but, because of estimation uncertainty, it could be any time between 1200 and 800 BC. However, they only considered Gaelic and Brythonic. The controversial paper by Forster and Toth[58] included Gaulish and put the break-up much earlier at 3200 BC ± 1500 years. They support the Insular Celtic hypothesis. The early Celts were commonly associated with the archaeological Urnfield culture, the Hallstatt culture, and the La Tène culture, though the earlier assumption of association between language and culture is now considered to be less strong.[59][60]

The Celtic nations, where Celtic languages are spoken today, or were spoken into the modern era:
  Wales (Welsh)

There are legitimate scholarly arguments in favour of both the Insular Celtic hypothesis and the P-Celtic/Q-Celtic hypothesis. Proponents of each schema dispute the accuracy and usefulness of the other's categories. However, since the 1970s the division into Insular and Continental Celtic has become the more widely held view (Cowgill 1975; McCone 1991, 1992; Schrijver 1995), but in the middle of the 1980s, the P-Celtic/Q-Celtic hypothesis found new supporters (Lambert 1994), because of the inscription on the Larzac piece of lead (1983), the analysis of which reveals another common phonetical innovation -nm- > -nu (Gaelic ainm / Gaulish anuana, Old Welsh enuein "names"), that is less accidental than only one. The discovery of a third common innovation, would allow the specialists to come to the conclusion of a Gallo-Brittonic dialect (Schmidt 1986; Fleuriot 1986).

The interpretation of this and further evidence is still quite contested, and the main argument in favour of Insular Celtic is connected with the development of the verbal morphology and the syntax in Irish and British Celtic, which Schumacher regards as convincing, while he considers the P-Celtic/Q-Celtic division unimportant and treats Gallo-Brittonic as an outdated hypothesis.[45] Stifter affirms that the Gallo-Brittonic view is "out of favour" in the scholarly community as of 2008 and the Insular Celtic hypothesis "widely accepted".[61]

When referring only to the modern Celtic languages, since no Continental Celtic language has living descendants, "Q-Celtic" is equivalent to "Goidelic" and "P-Celtic" is equivalent to "Brittonic".

Within the Indo-European family, the Celtic languages have sometimes been placed with the Italic languages in a common Italo-Celtic subfamily, a hypothesis that is now largely discarded, in favour of the assumption of language contact between pre-Celtic and pre-Italic communities.

How the family tree of the Celtic languages is ordered depends on which hypothesis is used:

"Insular Celtic hypothesis"

"P-Celtic hypothesis"

Eska (2010)

Eska (2010)[62] evaluates the evidence as supporting the following tree, based on shared innovations, though it is not always clear that the innovations are not areal features. It seems likely that Celtiberian split off before Cisalpine Celtic, but the evidence for this is not robust. On the other hand, the unity of Gaulish, Goidelic, and Brittonic is reasonably secure. Schumacher (2004, p. 86) had already cautiously considered this grouping to be likely genetic, based, among others, on the shared reformation of the sentence-initial, fully inflecting relative pronoun *i̯os, *i̯ā, *i̯od into an uninflected enclitic particle. Eska sees Cisalpine Gaulish as more akin to Lepontic than to Transalpine Gaulish.

Eska considers a division of Transalpine–Goidelic–Brittonic into Transalpine and Insular Celtic to be most probable because of the greater number of innovations in Insular Celtic than in P-Celtic, and because the Insular Celtic languages were probably not in great enough contact for those innovations to spread as part of a sprachbund. However, if they have another explanation (such as an SOV substratum language), then it is possible that P-Celtic is a valid clade, and the top branching would be:


Although there are many differences between the individual Celtic languages, they do show many family resemblances.


Irish: Ná bac le mac an bhacaigh is ní bhacfaidh mac an bhacaigh leat.
(Literal translation) Don't bother with son the beggar's and not will-bother son the beggar's with-you.
  • bhacaigh is the genitive of bacach. The igh the result of affection; the bh is the lenited form of b.
  • leat is the second person singular inflected form of the preposition le.
  • The order is verb–subject–object (VSO) in the second half. Compare this to English or French (and possibly Continental Celtic) which are normally subject–verb–object in word order.
Welsh: pedwar ar bymtheg a phedwar ugain
(Literally) four on fifteen and four twenties
  • bymtheg is a mutated form of pymtheg, which is pump ("five") plus deg ("ten"). Likewise, phedwar is a mutated form of pedwar.
  • The multiples of ten are deg, ugain, deg ar hugain, deugain, hanner cant, trigain, deg a thrigain, pedwar ugain, deg a phedwar ugain, cant.*

Comparison table

Welsh Cornish Breton Irish Scottish Gaelic Manx English
gwenynen gwenenen gwenanenn beach seillean, beach shellan bee
cadair kador kador cathaoir cathair, seidhir caair chair
caws keus keuz cáis càis(e) caashey cheese
aber aber aber inbhear inbhir inver estuary, mouth of a river
llawn leun leun lán làn lane full
gafr gaver gavr gabhar gobhar goayr goat
chi ti teach, tigh taigh thie house
gwefus gweus gweuz liopa, beol bile, lip meill lip (anatomical)
arian mona, arghans moneiz, arcʼhant airgead airgead argid silver, money
nos nos noz oíche oidhche oie night
rhif, nifer niver niver uimhir àireamh earroo number
tu fas, tu allan yn-mes er-maez amuigh a-muigh mooie outside
gellygen, peren peren perenn piorra peur/piar peear pear
chwarel mengleudh mengleuz cairéal coireall, cuaraidh quarral quarry
ysgol skol skol scoil sgoil scoill school
seren steren steredenn réalta reul, rionnag rollage star
heddiw hedhyw hiziv inniu an-diugh jiu today
cwympo kodha kouezhañ tit(im) tuit(eam) tuitt(ym) (to) fall
ysmygu megi mogediñ, butuniñ caith(eamh) tobac smocadh toghtaney, smookal (to) smoke
chwibanu hwibana c'hwibanat feadáil fead fed (to) whistle


Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights:

All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.

Possible Celtic languages

It has been suggested that several poorly-documented languages may possibly have been Celtic.

It is also possible that the Q-Celtic languages alone, including Goidelic, originated in western Iberia (a theory that was first put forward by Edward Lhuyd in 1707) and/or shared a common linguistic ancestor with Lusitanian.[69] Secondary evidence for this hypothesis has been found in research by biological scientists, who have identified (firstly) deep-rooted similarities in human DNA found precisely in both the former Lusitania and Ireland,[70][71] and; (secondly) the so-called "Lusitanian distribution" of animals and plants unique to western Iberia and Ireland. Both of these phenomena are now generally believed to have resulted from human emigration from Iberia to Ireland, during the late Paleolithic or early Mesolithic eras.[72]
Other scholars see greater linguistic affinities between Lusitanian, proto-Italic and Old European.[73][74]

See also


  1. Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2016). "Celtic". Glottolog 2.7. Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. "American Heritage Dictionary. Celtic: kel-tik, sel". Dictionary.reference.com. Retrieved 19 August 2011.
  3. The Celtic languages:an overview, Donald MacAulay, The Celtic Languages, ed. Donald MacAulay, (Cambridge University Press, 1992), 3.
  4. Cunliffe, Barry W. 2003. The Celts: a very short introduction. pg.48
  5. The Celts, Alice Roberts, (Heron Books 2015)
  6. "Language by State – Scottish Gaelic" on Modern Language Association website. Retrieved 27 December 2007
  7. "Languages Spoken At Home" from Australian Government Office of Multicultural Interests website. Retrieved 27 December 2007; G. Leitner, Australia's Many Voices: Australian English--The National Language, 2004, pg. 74
  8. Languages Spoken:Total Responses from Statistics New Zealand website. Retrieved 5 August 2008
  9. Koch, John T. (2006). Celtic Culture: A Historical Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. pp. 34, 365–366, 529, 973, 1053. Retrieved 15 June 2010.
  10. "A brief history of the Cornish language". Maga Kernow.
  11. Beresford Ellis, Peter (1990, 1998, 2005). The Story of the Cornish Language. Tor Mark Press. pp. 20–22. ISBN 0-85025-371-3. Check date values in: |date= (help)
  12. 1 2 Staff. "Fockle ny ghaa: schoolchildren take charge". Iomtoday.co.im. Retrieved 19 August 2011.
  13. "'South West:TeachingEnglish:British Council:BBC". BBC/British Council website. BBC. 2010. Archived from the original on 8 January 2010. Retrieved 9 February 2010.
  14. "Celtic Languages". Ethnologue. Retrieved 9 March 2010.
  15. Crystal, David (2010). The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Language. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-73650-3.
  16. 1 2 "Welsh language skills by local authority, gender and detailed age groups, 2011 Census". StatsWales website. Welsh Government. Retrieved 13 November 2015.
  17. 1 2 Office for National Statistics 2011 http://ons.gov.uk/ons/rel/census/2011-census/key-statistics-for-unitary-authorities-in-wales/stb-2011-census-key-statistics-for-wales.html#tab---Proficiency-in-Welsh
  18. United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. "World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples – UK: Welsh". UNHCR. Retrieved 23 May 2010.
  19. "Wales and Argentina". Wales.com website. Welsh Assembly Government. 2008. Archived from the original on 16 October 2012. Retrieved 23 January 2012.
  20. "Table 1. Detailed Languages Spoken at Home and Ability to Speak English for the Population 5 Years and Over for the United States: 2006-2008 Release Date: April 2010" (xls). United States Census Bureau. 27 April 2010. Retrieved 2 January 2011.
  21. "2006 Census of Canada: Topic based tabulations: Various Languages Spoken (147), Age Groups (17A) and Sex (3) for the Population of Canada, Provinces, Territories, Census Metropolitan Areas and Census Agglomerations, 2006 Census - 20% Sample Data". Statistics Canada. 7 December 2010. Retrieved 3 January 2011.
  22. StatsWales. "Welsh language skills by local authority, gender and detailed age groups, 2011 Census". Welsh Government. Retrieved 6 March 2016.
  23. "Irish Examiner". Archives.tcm.ie. 24 November 2004. Retrieved 19 August 2011.
  24. Christina Bratt Paulston. Linguistic Minorities in Multilingual Settings: Implications for Language Policies. J. Benjamins Pub. Co. p. 81. ISBN 1-55619-347-5.
  25. Pierce, David (2000). Irish Writing in the Twentieth Century. Cork University Press. p. 1140. ISBN 1-85918-208-9.
  26. Ó hÉallaithe, Donncha (1999). Cuisle. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  27. 1 2 www.cso.ie Central Statistics Office, Census 2011 - This is Ireland - see table 33a
  28. Central Statistics Office. "Population Aged 3 Years and Over by Province County or City, Sex, Ability to Speak Irish and Census Year". Government of Ireland. Retrieved 6 March 2016.
  29. DEPARTMENT OF FINANCE AND PERSONNEL. "Census 2011 Key Statistics for Northern Ireland" (PDF). The Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency. Retrieved 6 March 2016.
  30. (French) Données clés sur breton, Ofis ar Brezhoneg
  32. 1 2 2011 Scotland Census, Table QS211SC.
  33. "National Household Survey Profile, Nova Scotia, 2011". Statistics Canada. 11 September 2013. Retrieved 7 June 2014.
  34. Scotland's Census. "Standard Outputs". National Records of Scotland. Retrieved 6 March 2016.
  35. Alison Campsie. "New bid to get us speaking in Gaelic". The Press and Journal. Retrieved 6 March 2016.
  36. some 600 children brought up as bilingual native speakers (2003 estimate, SIL Ethnologue).
  37. Around 2,000 fluent speakers. "'South West:TeachingEnglish:British Council:BBC". BBC/British Council website. BBC. 2010. Retrieved 9 February 2010.
  38. Equalities and Wellbeing Division. "Language in England and Wales: 2011". Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 6 March 2016.
  39. "Anyone here speak Jersey?". Independent.co.uk. 11 April 2002. Retrieved 2011-08-19.
  40. "Documentation for ISO 639 identifier: glv". Sil.org. 14 January 2008. Archived from the original on 28 July 2011. Retrieved 19 August 2011.
  41. "Isle of Man Census Report 2011" (PDF). Economic Affairs Division, Isle of Man Government Treasury. April 2012. p. 27. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 November 2013. Retrieved 9 June 2014.
  42. Sarah Whitehead. "How the Manx language came back from the dead". The Guardian. Retrieved 6 March 2016.
  43. "Shelta". Ethnologue. Retrieved 9 March 2010.
  44. "ROMLEX: Romani dialects". Romani.uni-graz.at. Retrieved 19 August 2011.
  45. 1 2 Schumacher, Stefan; Schulze-Thulin, Britta; aan de Wiel, Caroline (2004). Die keltischen Primärverben. Ein vergleichendes, etymologisches und morphologisches Lexikon (in German). Innsbruck: Institut für Sprachen und Kulturen der Universität Innsbruck. pp. 84–87. ISBN 3-85124-692-6.
  46. Percivaldi, Elena (2003). I Celti: una civiltà europea. Giunti Editore. p. 82.
  47. 1 2 Kruta, Venceslas (1991). The Celts. Thames and Hudson. p. 55.
  48. Stifter, David (2008). Old Celtic Languages (PDF). p. 12.
  49. MORANDI 2004, pp. 702-703, n. 277
  50. "Ethnographic Map of Pre-Roman Iberia (circa 200 B.C.)". Arkeotavira.com. Retrieved 19 August 2011.
  51. Prósper, B.M. (2002). Lenguas y religiones prerromanas del occidente de la península ibérica. Ediciones Universidad de Salamanca. pp. 422–27. ISBN 84-7800-818-7.
  52. Villar F., B. M. Prósper. (2005). Vascos, Celtas e Indoeuropeos: genes y lenguas. Ediciones Universidad de Salamanca. pgs. 333–350. ISBN 84-7800-530-7.
  53. "In the northwest of the Iberian Peninula, and more specifically between the west and north Atlantic coasts and an imaginary line running north-south and linking Oviedo and Merida, there is a corpus of Latin inscriptions with particular characteristics of its own. This corpus contains some linguistic features that are clearly Celtic and others that in our opinion are not Celtic. The former we shall group, for the moment, under the label northwestern Hispano-Celtic. The latter are the same features found in well-documented contemporary inscriptions in the region occupied by the Lusitanians, and therefore belonging to the variety known as LUSITANIAN, or more broadly as GALLO-LUSITANIAN. As we have already said, we do not consider this variety to belong to the Celtic language family." Jordán Colera 2007: p.750
  54. Kenneth H. Jackson suggested that there were two Pictish languages, a pre-Indo-European one and a Pritenic Celtic one. This has been challenged by some scholars. See Katherine Forsyth's "Language in Pictland: the case against 'non-Indo-European Pictish'" "Etext" (PDF). (27.8 MB). See also the introduction by James & Taylor to the "Index of Celtic and Other Elements in W. J. Watson's 'The History of the Celtic Place-names of Scotland'" "Etext" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 February 2006. (172 KB ). Compare also the treatment of Pictish in Price's The Languages of Britain (1984) with his Languages in Britain & Ireland (2000).
  55. Barbour and Carmichael, Stephen and Cathie (2000). Language and nationalism in Europe. Oxford University Press. p. 56. ISBN 978-0-19-823671-9.
  56. Gray and Atkinson, RD; Atkinson, QD (2003). "Language-tree divergence times support the Anatolian theory of Indo-European origin". Nature. 426 (6965): 435–439. Bibcode:2003Natur.426..435G. doi:10.1038/nature02029. PMID 14647380.
  57. Rexova, K.; Frynta, D; Zrzavy, J. (2003). "Cladistic analysis of languages: Indo-European classification based on lexicostatistical data". Cladistics. 19 (2): 120–127. doi:10.1111/j.1096-0031.2003.tb00299.x.
  58. Forster, Peter; Toth, Alfred (2003). "Toward a phylogenetic chronology of ancient Gaulish, Celtic, and Indo-European". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 100 (15): 9079–9084. doi:10.1073/pnas.1331158100. PMC 166441Freely accessible. PMID 12837934.
  59. Renfrew, Colin (1987). Archaeology and Language: The Puzzle of Indo-European Origins. London: Jonathan Cape. ISBN 0224024957.
  60. James, Simon (1999). The Atlantic Celts: Ancient People or Modern Invention?. London: British Museum Press. ISBN 0714121657.
  61. Stifter, David (2008). Old Celtic Languages (PDF). p. 11.
  62. Joseph F. Eska (2010) "The emergence of the Celtic languages". In Martin J. Ball and Nicole Müller (eds.), The Celtic languages. Routledge.
  63. Markey, Thomas (2008). Shared Symbolics, Genre Diffusion, Token Perception and Late Literacy in North-Western Europe. NOWELE.
  64. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 18 May 2013. Retrieved 2015-03-04.
  65. Kruta, Venceslas (1991). The Celts. Thames and Hudson. p. 54.
  66. 1 2 Wodtko, Dagmar S (2010). Celtic from the West Chapter 11: The Problem of Lusitanian. Oxbow Books, Oxford, UK. pp. 360–361. ISBN 978-1-84217-410-4.
  67. 1 2 Cunliffe, Barry (2003). The Celts – A Very Short Introduction – see figure 7. Oxford University Press. pp. 51–52. ISBN 0-19-280418-9.
  68. Ballester, X. (2004). ""Páramo" o del problema del la */p/ en celtoide". Studi Celtici. 3: 45–56.
  69. https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=fDYyBwAAQBAJ&pg=PA8&lpg=PA8&dq=edward+lhuyd+lusitanian+celtic&source=bl&ots=p9NxkvOEqy&sig=slJhEQWgllehbW7lzwuuJasMBds&hl=pt-PT&sa=X&ved=0CDsQ6AEwA2oVChMIyt-c0-D2xgIVCyDbCh3uzQps#v=onepage&q=edward%20lhuyd%20lusitanian%20celtic&f=false
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  71. McEvoy, B.; Richards, M.; Forster, P.; Bradley, D. G. (2004). "The longue durée of genetic ancestry: multiple genetic marker systems and Celtic origins on the Atlantic facade of Europe". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 75: 693–702. doi:10.1086/424697. PMC 1182057Freely accessible. PMID 15309688.
  72. Masheretti, S.; Rogatcheva, M. B.; Gündüz, I.; Fredga, K.; Searle, J. B. (2003). "How did pygmy shrews colonize Ireland? Clues from a phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial cytochrome b sequences". Proc. Roy. Soc. B. 270: 1593–1599.
  73. Villar, Francisco (2000). Indoeuropeos y no indoeuropeos en la Hispania Prerromana (in Spanish) (1st ed.). Salamanca: Ediciones Universidad de Salamanca. ISBN 84-7800-968-X. Retrieved 22 September 2014.
  74. The inscription of Cabeço das Fráguas revisited. Lusitanian and Alteuropäisch populations in the West of the Iberian Peninsula Transactions of the Philological Society vol. 97 (2003)
  75. Forsyth 2006, p. 1447; Forsyth 1997; Fraser 2009, pp. 52–53; Woolf 2007, pp. 322–340
  76. Scullard, HH (1967). The Etruscan Cities and Rome. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
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