|Zodiac symbol||Mountain sea-goat|
|Duration (tropical, western)||December 21 – January 19 (2016, UT1)|
Capricorn (♑) (English pronunciation: /kæp.rɪ.kɔːn/) is the tenth astrological sign in the zodiac, originating from the constellation of Capricornus. It spans the 270–300th degree of the zodiac, corresponding to celestial longitude. Under the tropical zodiac, the sun transits this area from December 22 to January 19 each year, and under the sidereal zodiac, the sun transits the constellation of Capricorn from approximately January 16 to February 16. In astrology, Capricorn is considered an earth sign, negative sign, and one of the four cardinal signs. Capricorn is said to be ruled by the planet Saturn. Its symbol is based on the Sumerians' primordial god of wisdom and waters, Enki with the head and upper body of a mountain goat, and the lower body and tail of a fish. Later known as Ea in Akkadian and Babylonian mythology, Enki was the god of intelligence (gestú, literally "ear"), creation, crafts; magic; water, seawater and lakewater (a, aba, ab).
The mountain goat part of the symbol depicts ambition, resolute, intelligence, curiosity, but also steadiness, and ability to thrive in inhospitable environments while the fish represents passion, spirituality, intuition, and connection with the soul. Individuals born between December 21 to January 19 may be called Capricornian.
In India, the day when the Sun enters the sidereal zodiac sign of Capricorn is celebrated as the Makara Sankranti festival. The Indian astronomical calendar is not based on the Western Gregorian or Julian date keeping system but has a differential lag. Hence, the festival is celebrated on either of 14 or 15 January every year, when, as per the Indian astronomical calendar, the Sun enters the Capricorn sign.
Pricus was the father to a race of sea-goats that loved to hang out near the sea shore. They were considered to be honorable, intelligent and favored by the gods. Pricus was close to Chronos (Saturn), the father of time; he who controls time. Because of Pricus relationship with Chronos, he also knew how to manipulate time. According to the myth, the sea-goats could climb out of the waters and bath in the sun on the beach, however, the longer a sea-goat stayed out of water, the more of its fish tail it would lose. Pricus had lost many sons and daughters to the land/earth, due to them transforming into full goats. Once their tail became hind legs, they were not able to swim anymore and would lose most of their intelligence. He was worried and always warned his kids to keep off the land. Because he could manipulate time, he reversed time several times to get his kids back. Finally, realizing he could not control their destiny and prevent them from never being able to return to the sea, he offered the gods to take his life. The gods were moved by his willingness to sacrifice his life for the race of sea-goats, they granted him immortality. He would be immortalized in the heavens as Capricornus the Sea-Goat, ever watching over his children as they climb dangerous waves and mountains.
- Astronomical Applications Department (2011). Multiyear Computer Interactive Almanac. 2.2.2. Washington DC: US Naval Observatory. Longitude of Sun, apparent geocentric ecliptic of date, interpolated to find time of crossing 0°, 30°.... The year stated applies to the December date; the year for the January date is one year greater.
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- Augustin, M. (n.d.). "Capricorn Mythology, what is it about?".
- "Capricornian". dictionary.com.
- Ciubotaru, Dan (February 1, 2008). "Capricorn, Scorpio, Leo: In search of power".
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- Heindel, Max (1919). Simplified Scientific Astrology: A Complete Textbook on the Art of Erecting a Horoscope, with Philosophic Encyclopedia and Tables of Planetary Hours (4 ed.). Rosicrucian Fellowship. OCLC 36106074.
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- Mayo, Jeff (1979). Teach Yourself Astrology. London: Hodder and Stoughton.
- The dictionary definition of Capricorn at Wiktionary
- Media related to Capricorn at Wikimedia Commons
- Warburg Institute Iconographic Database (over 300 medieval and early modern images of Capricorn)