National Film Board of Canada

National Film Board of Canada
Office national du film du Canada

National Film Board of Canada logo
Abbreviation NFB
Formation 1939
Type Federal agency
Purpose Film and interactive media producer and distributor
Headquarters Montreal, Quebec, Canada
Official language
English, French
Government Film Commissioner and NFB Chairperson
Claude Joli-Coeur

The National Film Board of Canada (or simply National Film Board or NFB) (French: Office national du film du Canada, or ONF) is Canada's twelve-time Academy Award-winning public film and digital media producer and distributor. An agency of the Government of Canada, the NFB produces and distributes documentary films, animation, web documentaries and alternative dramas. In total, the NFB has produced over 13,000 productions which have won over 5,000 awards.[1] The NFB reports to the Parliament of Canada through the Minister of Canadian Heritage. It has English-language and French-language production branches.


NFB headquarters building, Montreal.

Partial timeline


The National Film Board currently maintains its head office in Saint-Laurent, a borough of Montreal, in the Norman McLaren electoral district, named in honour of the NFB animation pioneer.[3] The NFB HQ building is also named for McLaren, and is home to much of its production activity.

In the fall of 2017, the NFB is scheduled to move to its headquarters to Montreal's Quartier des Spectacles, in a new building being constructed by the city of Montreal, adjacent to the Place des Festivals square. The NFB will occupy the first four floors of the structure, which will allow the NFB to closer contact with the public, and expanded digital media research and production facilities.[4]

The NFB's offices in Toronto. The ground-floor Mediatheque was closed in April 2012.

In addition to the English and French-language studios in its Montreal HQ, there are centres throughout Canada. English-language production occurs at centres in Toronto (Ontario Centre), Vancouver (Pacific & Yukon Centre, located in the Woodward's Building), Edmonton (North West Centre), Winnipeg (Prairie Centre), and Halifax (Atlantic Centre). As of October 2009, the Atlantic Centre also operates an office in St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador.[5] In June 2011, the NFB appointed a producer to work with film and digital media makers across Saskatchewan, to be based in Regina.[6]

Outside Quebec, French language productions are also made in Moncton (Studio Acadie).[7] The NFB also offers support programs for independent filmmakers: in English, via the Filmmaker Assistance Program (FAP) and in French through its Aide du cinéma indépendant – Canada (ACIC) program.

The organization has a hierarchical structure headed by a Board of Trustees, which is chaired by the Government Film Commissioner and NFB Chairperson. It is overseen by the Board of Trustees Secretariat and Legal Affairs.

Funding is derived primarily from government of Canada transfer payments, and also from its own revenue streams. These revenues are from print sales, film production services, rentals, and royalties, and total up to $10 million yearly; the NFB lists this as Respendable Revenues in its financial statements. As a result of cuts imposed by 2012 Canadian federal budget, by 2015 the NFB's public funding will be reduced by $6.7 million, to $60.3 million.[8]

On March 8, 2016, International Women's Day, NFB head Claude Joli-Coeur announced a new gender-parity initiative, with the NFB committing that half of all its production spending will be earmarked for films directed by women.[9][10]

As part of the 2016 Canadian federal budget, the NFB will receive an additional $13.5 million in funding, spread out over a five-year period.[11]


In 1938, the Government of Canada invited John Grierson, a British documentary film pioneer who coined the very term "documentary," to study the state of the government's film production. Up to that date, the Canadian Government Motion Picture Bureau, established in 1918, had been the major Canadian film producer. The results of Grierson's report were included in the National Film Act of 1939, which led to the establishment of the National Film Commission, which was subsequently renamed the National Film Board. In part, it was founded to create propaganda in support of the Second World War.[12]

In 1940, with Canada at war, the NFB launched its Canada Carries On series of morale boosting theatrical shorts.[13] The success of Canada Carries On led to the creation of The World in Action, which was more geared to international audiences.[14]

In this period, other NFB films were issued as newsreels, such as The War Is Over (1945), intended for theatrical showings. These films were based on current news and often tackled wartime events as well as contemporary issues in Canadian culture.

Early in its history, the NFB was a primarily English-speaking institution. Based in Ottawa, 90% of its staff were English and the few French Canadians in production worked with English crews. There was a French Unit which was responsible for versioning films into French but it was headed by an Anglophone. And in NFB annual reports of the time, French films were listed under "foreign languages." Screenwriter Jacques Bobet, hired in 1947, worked to strengthen the French Unit and retain French talent, and was appointed producer of French versions in 1951.[15] During that period, commissioner Albert Trueman, sensitive to how the Quiet Revolution was beginning to transform Quebec society, brought in Pierre Juneau as the NFB's "French Advisor." Juneau recommended the creation of a French production branch to enable francophone filmmakers to work and create in their own language.[16]

In 1956, the NFB's headquarters was relocated from Ottawa to Montreal, improving the NFB's reputation in French Canada and making the NFB more attractive to French-speaking filmmakers. In 1964, a separate French production branch was finally established, with Bobet as one of its four initial executive producers.[15]

During the ’40s and early ’50s, the NFB employed 'travelling projectionists' who toured the country, bringing films and public discussions to rural communities.[17][18] A revision of the National Film Act in 1950 removed any direct government intervention into the operation and administration of the NFB.[19]

With the creation of the Canadian Film Development Corporation (now known as Telefilm Canada) in 1967, the mandate for the National Film Board was refined. The Canadian Film Development Corporation would become responsible for promoting the development of the film industry.[20] 1967 also saw the creation of Challenge for Change, a community media project that would develop the use of film and video as a tool for initiating social change.[21] The National Film Board produced several educational films in partnership with Parks Canada during the 1960s and 1970s, including Bill Schmalz's Bears and Man.[22]

In the early 1970s, the NFB began a process of decentralization, opening film production centres in cities across Canada. The move had been championed by NFB producers such as Rex Tasker, who became the first executive producer of the NFB's studio in Halifax.[23]

Main article: Canada Vignettes

During the 1970s and early 1980s, the National Film Board produced a series of vignettes, some of which aired on CBC and other Canadian broadcasters as interstitial programs. The vignettes became popular because of their cultural depiction of Canada, and because they represented its changing state, such as the vignette Faces which was made to represent the increasing cultural and ethnic diversity of Canada. In 1996, the NFB operating budget was cut by 32%, forcing it to lay off staff and to close its film laboratory, sound stage (now privatized) and other departments.

In 2006, the NFB marked the 65th anniversary of NFB animation with an international retrospective of restored Norman McLaren classics and the launch of the DVD box set, Norman McLaren – The Master's Edition. The NFB budget has since been cut again. The six-storey John Grierson Building at its Montreal headquarters has been unused for several years – with HQ staff now based solely in its adjacent Norman McLaren Building. In October 2009, the NFB released a free app for Apple's iPhone that would allow users to watch thousands of NFB films directly on their cell phones. In 2010, the NFB released an iPad version of their app that streams NFB films, many in high definition.

In March 2012, the NFB's funding was cut 10%, to be phased in over a three-year period, as part of the 2012 Canadian federal budget.[24] The NFB eliminated 73 full and part-time positions.[8]

Beginning May 2, 2014, the NFB's 75th anniversary was marked by such events as the release of a series of commemorative stamps by Canada Post,[25] and an NFB documentary about the film board's early years, entitled Shameless Propaganda.[26]


Cinéma vérité and Direct Cinema

In the post-war era the NFB became a pioneer in new developments in documentary film. The NFB played a key role in both the Cinéma vérité and Direct Cinema movements, working on technical innovations to make its 16 mm synchronized sound equipment more light-weight and portable—most notably the "Sprocketape" portable sound recorder invented for the film board by Ches Beachell in 1955. Influenced by the work of Henri Cartier-Bresson, the NFB's Studio B production unit experimented with cinema verite in its 1958 Candid Eye series. Candid Eye along with such NFB French-language films as Les Raquetteurs (1958) have been credited as helping to inspire the cinéma vérité documentary movement. Other key cinéma vérité films during this period included Lonely Boy (1961) and Ladies and Gentlemen... Mr. Leonard Cohen (1965).[27]

Challenge for Change/Societé Nouvelle

Main article: Challenge for Change

Running from 1967 to 1980, Challenge for Change and its French-language equivalent Societé Nouvelle became a global model for the use of film and portable video technology to create community-based participatory documentary films to promote dialogue on local issues and promote social change. Over two hundred such films were produced, including 27 films about Fogo Island, Newfoundland, directed by Colin Low and early NFB efforts in Indigenous filmmaking, such as Willie Dunn's The Battle of Crowfoot (1968).[27][28]

Giant-screen cinema

NFB documentarians played a key role in the development of the IMAX film format, following the NFB multi-screen experience In the Labyrinth, created for Expo 67 in Montreal. The film was the centrepiece of a $4.5 million pavilion, which attracted over 1.3 million visitors in 1967, and was co-directed by Roman Kroitor, Colin Low and Hugh O'Connor, and produced by Tom Daly and Kroitor. After Expo, Kroitor left the NFB to co-found what would become known as IMAX Corporation, with Graeme Ferguson and Robert Kerr. The NFB continued to be involved with IMAX breakthroughs at subsequent world's fairs, with NFB director Donald Brittain directing the first-ever IMAX film Tiger Child for Expo 70 in Osaka, and with the NFB producing the first full-colour IMAX-3D film Transitions for Expo 86 in Vancouver and the first 48 fps IMAX HD film Momentum for Seville Expo '92.[29]

Studio D

In 1974, in conjunction with International Women's Year, the National Film Board of Canada, on the recommendation of long-time employee Kathleen Shannon created Studio D, the first government-funded film studio dedicated to women filmmakers in the world. Shannon was designated as Executive Director of the new studio which became one of the NFB's most celebrated filmmaking units, winning awards and breaking distribution records.[27][30][31]

Notable films produced by the studio include three Academy Award-winning documentaries I'll Find a Way (1977), If You Love This Planet (1982) and Flamenco at 5:15 (1983), as well as Not a Love Story (1982) and Forbidden Love: The Unashamed Stories of Lesbian Lives (1992). Studio D was shut down in 1996, amidst a sweeping set of federal government budget cuts, which impacted the NFB as a whole.[27]


McLaren drawing on film, 1944

When Norman McLaren joined the organization in 1941, the NFB began production of animation. The animation department eventually gained distinction, particularly with the pioneering work of McLaren, an internationally recognized experimental filmmaker. The NFB's French-language animation unit was founded in 1966 by René Jodoin.[32]

Drawn-on-film animation

When McLaren joined the NFB, his first film at the film board was the drawn-on-film short, Mail Early. He would go on to refine his technique make a series of hand-drawn films at the NFB during and after the Second World War, most notably Boogie-Doodle (1940), Hen Hop (1942), Begone Dull Care (1949) and Blinkity Blank (1955).[33]

Pinscreen animation

The NFB was a pioneer in several novel techniques such as pinscreen animation, and as of June 2012, the NFB is reported to have the only working animation pinscreen in the world.[34]

Stop-motion animation

McLaren's Oscar-winning Neighbours popularized the form of character movement referred to as pixilation, a variant of stop motion. The term pixilation itself was created by NFB animator Grant Munro in an experimental film of the same name. In 2015, the NFB's animation studios were credited as helping to lead a revival in stop-motion animation in Canada, building on the tradition of NFB animators such as McLaren and Co Hoedeman.[35]

Computer animation

The NFB was a pioneer in computer animation, releasing one of the first CGI films, Hunger, in 1974, then forming its Centre d'animatique in 1980 to develop new CGI technologies.[36] Staff at the Centre d'animatique included Daniel Langlois, who left in 1986 to form Softimage.[37]

The NFB was licensed by IMAX Corporation to develop new artistic applications using its SANDDE system for hand-drawn stereoscopic computer animation, with the NFB producing a number of films including Falling in Love Again (2003) and Subconscious Password (2013).[38]

Traditional animation

Traditional animators included Richard Condie, John Weldon, Allison Snowden, Janet Perlman, Cordell Barker, Brad Caslor, Michael Mills, Paul Driessen among others (some draw on paper rather than cels).

Sand animation

Caroline Leaf used this technique on films such as The Metamorphosis Of Mr. Samsa and The Owl Who Married A Goose. The Sand Castle was the first (and so far only) sand animation to win an Oscar.

Paint on glass animation

Wendy Tilby and Amanda Forbes perfected the paint on glass technique (mixing oil paint with glycerine) on films such as Strings and Wild Life. This technique was also used on Caroline Leaf's film The Street.



As of March 2013, the NFB devotes one quarter of its production budget to interactive media, including web documentaries.[39][40] The NFB is a pioneer in interactive web documentaries, helping to position Canada as a major player in digital storytelling, according to transmedia creator Anita Ondine Smith,[41] as well as Shari Frilot, programmer for Sundance Film Festival's New Frontier program for digital media.[42]

Welcome to Pine Point received two Webby Awards while Out My Window, an interactive project from the NFB's Highrise project, won the IDFA DocLab Award for Digital Storytelling and an International Digital Emmy Award.[43][44]

Loc Dao is the executive producer and "creative technologist" responsible for NFB English-language digital content and strategy, based in the Woodward's Building in Vancouver. Jeremy Mendes is an interactive artist producing English-language interactive works for the NFB, whose projects include a collaboration with Leanne Allison (Being Caribou, Finding Farley) on the webdoc Bear 71.[45][46]

Dao's counterpart for French-language interactive media production at the NFB is Hugues Sweeney, based in Montreal. Sweeney's recent credits include the online interactive animation work, Bla Bla.[47][48]

Virtual reality

The NFB is also recognized as a leader in virtual reality,[49] with works such as the Webby Award-winning The Unknown Photographer, Way to Go and Cardboard Crash.[50]


In January 2009, the NFB launched its online Screening Room,, offering Canadian and international web users the ability to stream hundreds of NFB films for free as well as embed links in blogs and social sites.[51][52][53] As of May 18, 2013, the NFB's digital platforms have received approximately 41 million views.[54]

In October 2009, the NFB launched an iPhone application that was downloaded more than 170,000 times and led to more than 500,000 film views in the first four months.[55] In January 2010, the NFB added high-definition and 3D films to the over 1400 productions available for viewing online.[56] The NFB introduced a free iPad application in July 2010,[57] followed by its first app for the Android platform in March 2011.[58] When the BlackBerry PlayBook launched on April 19, 2011, it included a pre-loaded app offering access to 1,500 NFB titles.[59][60] In January 2013, it was announced that the NFB film app would be available for the BlackBerry 10, via the BlackBerry World app store.[61]

In September 2011, the NFB and the Montreal French-language daily Le Devoir announced that they would jointly host three interactive essays on their websites, and[62] The NFB is a partner with China's on NFB Zone, the first Canadian-branded web channel in China, with 130 NFB animated shorts and documentary films available on the company's digital platforms.[63] NFB documentaries are also available on Netflix Canada.[64]

In April 2013, the NFB announced that it was "seeking commercial partners to establish a subscription service for Internet television and mobile platforms next year. The service would be available internationally and would feature documentaries from around the world as well as the NFB’s own catalogue."[65] As of April 2015, offered VOD films from partners Excentris and First Weekend Club along with NFB productions, with over 450 English and French VOD titles scheduled to be added in 2015.[66]

Aboriginal filmmaking

In November 2006, the National Film Board of Canada and the Inuit Broadcasting Corporation announced the start of the Nunavut Animation Lab, offering animation training to Nunavut artists.[67] Films from the Nunavut Animation Lab include Alethea Arnaquq-Baril's 2010 digital animation short Lumaajuuq, winner of the Best Aboriginal Award at the Golden Sheaf Awards and named Best Canadian Short Drama at the imagineNATIVE Film + Media Arts Festival.[68]

In November 2011, the NFB and partners including the Inuit Relations Secretariat and the Government of Nunavut introduced a DVD and online collection entitled Unikkausivut: Sharing Our Stories, which will make over 100 NFB films by and about Inuit available in Inuktitut and other Inuit languages, as well as English and French.[69][70]


NFB training programs include:

NFB structure

Branches and studios

As of 2015, the NFB is organized along the following branches:[74]

With six regional studios in English Program:

And four regional studios in French Program:

Former studios and departments

Still Photography Division

Upon its merger with the Canadian Government Motion Picture Bureau in 1941, the NFB's mandate expanded to include motion as well as still pictures, resulting in the creation of the Still Photography Division of the NFB.

Montreal CineRobotheque, July 2008.

From 1941 to 1984, the Division commissioned freelance photographers to document every aspect of life in Canada. These images were widely distributed through publication in various media.

In 1985, this Division officially became the Canadian Museum of Contemporary Photography.[82]

The division's work is the subject of a 2013 book by Carleton University art professor Carol Payne entitled The Official Picture: The National Film Board of Canada’s Still Photography Division and the Image of Canada, 1941-1971, published by the McGill-Queen's University Press.[83]

Public access facilities in Montreal and Toronto

As part of the 2012 budget cuts, the NFB announced that it was forced to close its Toronto Mediatheque and Montreal CineRobotheque public facilities.[8] They ceased to operate as of September 1, 2012.[84] In September 2013, the Université du Québec à Montréal announced that it had acquired the CineRobotheque for its communications faculty.[85]


Government Film Commissioners

As stipulated in the National Film Act of 1950, the person who holds the position of Government Film Commissioner is the head of the NFB. As of December 2014, the 16th commissioner of the NFB is Claude Joli-Coeur, who first joined the NFB in 2003 and had previously served as interim commissioner.[86]

Past NFB Commissioners
A brief list of some key NFB filmmakers, artisans and staff.


Film and television awards

Over the years, the NFB has been internationally recognized with more than 5000 film awards.[90][91] In 2009, Norman McLaren's Neighbours was added to UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme, listing the most significant documentary heritage collections in the world.[92]

Genie Awards

The NFB has received more than 90 Genie Awards, including a Special Achievement Genie in 1989 for its 50th anniversary. The following is an incomplete list:



Academy Awards

The National Film Board of Canada has been recognized by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences for their work and has garnered a total of 73 Academy Award nominations as of January 2015, more than any film organization in the world outside Hollywood.[93] The first-ever Oscar for documentary went to the NFB production, Churchill's Island. In 1989, it received an Honorary Award from the Academy "in recognition of its 50th anniversary and its dedicated commitment to originate artistic, creative and technological activity and excellence in every area of filmmaking."[94] On January 23, 2007, the NFB received its 12th and most recent Academy Award, for the animated short The Danish Poet, directed by Torill Kove and co-produced with MikroFilm AS (Norway).[95] 54 of the NFB's 73 Oscar nominations have been for its short films.[96]


Nominated: (incomplete list)

Peabody Awards

As of April 2014, the NFB has received five Peabody Awards, for the web documentary A Short History of the Highrise,[97] co-produced with The New York Times; the Rezolution Pictures/NFB co-production Reel Injun (2011);[98] Karen Shopsowitz's NFB documentary My Father's Camera (2002),[99] the NFB/Télé-Action co-produced mini-series The Boys of St. Vincent (1995)[100] and the NFB documentary Fat Chance (1994).[101]

Annie Awards

NFB Annie Awards nominations include:

Nominated: (incomplete list)

Interactive awards

In June 2011, NFB received the Award of Excellence in Interactive Programming from the Banff World Media Festival.[102] In August 2011, the NFB received an outstanding technical achievement in digital media award from the Academy of Canadian Cinema & Television.[103]

Webby Awards

As of 2016, NFB web documentaries have won 17 Webby Awards, presented International Academy of Digital Arts and Sciences for excellence on the internet. Filmmaker-in-Residence, a project by Katerina Cizek about St. Michael's Hospital in Toronto, was named best online documentary series at the 2008 Webbys.[104] In 2010, the NFB website Waterlife, on the state of the Great Lakes, won in the Documentary: Individual Episode category.[105] In 2011, Welcome to Pine Point received two Webbys, for Documentary: Individual Episode in the Online Film & Video category and Net art in the Websites category.[106] In 2012, the NFB received two more Webbys, for Bla Bla (best web art) and God's Lake Narrows (best use of photography).[107] In 2013, Bear 71 received the Webby for best net art.[108] In 2014, the interactive photo essay The Last Hunt received a People’s Voice Award Webby for best navigation/structure.[109] In 2015, the NFB-co-produced webdoc Seven Digital Deadly Sins received three People's Voice Awards, chosen by the public online, at the 2015 Webby Awards.[110]

At the 2016 awards, the NFB received six more Webbys: Way to Go received the Webby and People's Voice awards in the Web/NetArt category as well as the Webby for Online Film & Video/VR: Gaming, Interactive or Real-Time. The Unknown Photographer won the People's Voice award in the Online Film & Video/VR: Gaming, Interactive or Real-Time category, while Universe Within received the Webby for Online Film & Video/Best Use of Interactive Video, and Cardboard Crash VR for Google Cardboard won in the category of Online Film & Video/VR: Gaming, Interactive or Real-time (Branded).[50]


This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it.


In addition to Neighbours, other NFB productions been the source of controversy, including two NFB productions broadcast on CBC Television that criticized the role of Canadians in wartime led to questions in the Canadian Senate:

The Kid Who Couldn't Miss (1982) cast doubt on the accomplishments of Canadian World War I flying ace Billy Bishop, sparking widespread outrage, including complaints in the Senate subcommittee on Veterans' Affairs.[112]

A decade later, The Valour and the Horror outraged some when it suggested that there was incompetence on the part of Canadian military command, and that Canadian soldiers had committed unprosecuted war crimes against German soldiers. The series became the subject of an inquiry by the Senate.

Other controversial productions included the 1981 film Not a Love Story: A Film About Pornography, a 1981 Studio D documentary critiquing pornography that was itself banned in the province of Ontario on the basis of pornographic content.[113] Released the following year, If You Love This Planet, winner of the Academy Award for best documentary short subject, was labelled foreign propaganda under the Foreign Agents Registration Act of 1938 in the United States.[114]


The NFB is a minority owner of the digital television channel, Documentary in Canada. NFB-branded series Retrovision appeared on VisionTV, along with the French-language Carnets ONF series on APTN. Moreover, in 1997 the American cable channel Cartoon Network created a weekly 30-minute show called O Canada specifically showcasing a compilation of NFB-produced works; the segment was discontinued in favour of Adult Swim.[115][116] As of 2010, many of the NFB children's shows are available on the children's IPTV service Ameba.

The old NFB logo.

The Board's logo consists of a standing stylized figure (originally green) with its arms wide upward. The arms are met by an arch that mirrors them. The round head in between then resembles a pupil, making the entire symbol appear to be an eye with legs. Launched in 1969, the logo symbolized a vision of humanity and was called "Man Seeing / L'homme qui voit". It was designed by Georges Beaupré. It was updated in 2002 by the firm of Paprika Communications.[117]

See also


  1. About the NFB
  2. "Mission and Highlights". Website. National Film Board of Canada. 18 November 2015. Retrieved 3 August 2016.
  3. "Un territoire, deux districts électoraux". City of Montreal Web site (in French). Retrieved May 16, 2009.
  4. "L'ONF déménage dans le Quartier des spectacles à Montréal". CBC News (in French). Montreal. 25 September 2014. Retrieved 26 September 2014.
  5. Wicks, Heidi (October 23, 2009). "Digital is the future of film, television, new media, says Tom Perlmutter". The Telegram. St. John's. Retrieved October 26, 2009.
  6. Chabun, Will (May 27, 2011). "Generoux to helm reborn Regina office". Regina Leader-Post. Retrieved June 12, 2011.
  7. "L'ONF en Acadie, 35 ans de création". (in French). National Film Board of Canada. Retrieved October 26, 2009.
  8. 1 2 3 "NFB to cut 61 jobs across Canada". CBC News. April 4, 2012. Retrieved April 4, 2012.
  9. Taylor, Kate (9 March 2016). "NFB pledge for gender parity could spur change in Canadian film industry". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved 9 March 2016.
  10. Vlessing, Etan (8 March 2016). "Canada Bankrolling More Female Directors to Close Gender Gap". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved 9 March 2016.
  11. Taylor, Kate (23 March 2016). "FEDERAL BUDGET 2016: Arts community had better spend its budget money wisely". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved 23 March 2016.
  12. Ann Curthoys, Marilyn Lake Connected worlds: history in transnational perspective, Volume 2004 p.151. Australian National University Press
  13. Morris, Peter. "Canada Carries On". Canadian Film Encyclopedia. Film Reference Library. Retrieved October 17, 2009.
  14. Ohayon, Albert (September 30, 2009). "Propaganda Cinema at the NFB – The World in Action". National Film Board of Canada. Retrieved October 19, 2009.
  15. 1 2 "Bobet Jacques". NFB PROFILES. National Film Board of Canada. Retrieved April 29, 2012.
  16. Evans, Gary (1991). In the National Interest: A Chronicle of the National Film Board of Canada from 1949–1989. University of Toronto Press. pp. 34–35. ISBN 0-8020-2784-9. Retrieved May 2, 2012.
  17. Graham, Gerald (November 19, 2002). "Five Filmmakers in Conversation with Gerald Pratley". Kinema. University of Waterloo. Retrieved February 17, 2009.
  18. Spak, Harvey. "Movie Showman". National Film Board of Canada. Retrieved February 17, 2009.
  19. "National Film Board of Canada/Office national du film du Canada". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Historica Foundation of Canada. Retrieved August 30, 2006.
  20. "Canadian Film Policy: History of Federal Initiatives". Heritage Canada. January 22, 2003. Retrieved August 30, 2006.
  21. Schugurensky, Daniel (2005). "Challenge for Change launched, a participatory media approach to citizenship education". History of Education. The Ontario Institute for Studies in Education of the University of Toronto (OISE/UT). Retrieved October 16, 2009.
  22. Colpitts, George (2011). "Films, Tourists, and Bears in the National Parks: Managing Park Use and the Problematic 'Highway Bum' Bear". In Claire Elizabeth Campbell. A Century of Parks Canada, 1911-2011 (PDF). Calgary: University of Calgary Press. pp. 153–169. ISBN 9781552385265.
  23. Cooke, Stephen (30 May 2014). "Atlantic move part of NFB's history". The Chronicle Herald. Halifax. Retrieved 2 June 2014.
  24. Kelly, Brendan (March 30, 2012). "CBC, NFB and Telefilm to see 10% cut". Montreal Gazette. Retrieved April 3, 2012.
  25. "New stamp issue celebrates the 75th anniversary of the National Film Board" (Press release). Canada Post. 2 May 2014. Retrieved 17 May 2014.
  26. Kane, Laura (12 May 2014). "Documentary reveals NFB wartime propaganda". Brampton Guardian. The Canadian Press. Retrieved 17 May 2014.
  27. 1 2 3 4 Aitken, Ian (October 27, 2005). Encyclopedia of the Documentary Film. Routledge. p. 168. ISBN 978-1579584450.
  28. Challenge for Change: Activist Documentary at the National Film Board of Canada (2010). Thomas Waugh, Michael Brendan Baker, Ezra Winton (eds). Montreal-Kingston: McGill-Queens University Press., pp. 5-6
  29. Aitken 2005, pp. 168-169
  30. "Canadian Women in Film". Library and Archives Canada. April 12, 2005. Retrieved February 2, 2009.
  31. Hays, Matthew (August 21, 1997). "Screen legend". Montreal Mirror. Retrieved August 10, 2009.
  32. Milligan, Mercedes (28 January 2015). "NFB French Animation Founder René Jodoin Dies". Animation Magazine. Retrieved 29 January 2015.
  33. McWilliams, Donald. "About Norman McLaren". McLaren 2014. Retrieved 23 August 2015.
  34. Blair, Iain (June 4, 2012). "NFB pushes Canadian artists in edgy direction". Variety. Retrieved June 5, 2012.
  35. Doherty, Mike. "Shaun the Sheep leads the stop-motion animation revival". CBC Arts. 8 August 2015. Retrieved 9 August 2015.
  36. Zéau, Caroline (2006). "L'Office national du film et le cinéma canadien (1939-2003)". Études Canadiennes. Peter Lang. 10: 232. ISBN 9052013381.
  37. Century, Michael (Sept. 29-Oct. 4 2005). New Media in an Adhocracy (PDF). REFRESH conference, First International Conference on the Media Arts, Sciences and Technologies. Banff, Alberta: Banff Centre. Retrieved June 8, 2012. Check date values in: |date= (help)
  38. Giardina, Carolyn (23 July 2013). "Siggraph: Oscar Winner Chris Landreth Shows His New Short 'Subconscious Password'". Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved 18 August 2013.
  39. Deglise, Fabien (11 April 2013). "L'insomnie par procuration". Le Devoir (in French). Montreal. Retrieved 15 April 2013.
  40. Hutter, Kristy (January 18, 2012). "A documentary like no other documentary". Maclean's. Retrieved January 19, 2012.
  41. Vlessing, Etan (January 18, 2012). "Expert: Canada Primed to Become Major Transmedia Player". Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved January 19, 2012.
  42. Monk, Katherine (30 January 2015). "Canada is king of the New Frontier at Sundance Film Festival". Postmedia News. Retrieved 31 January 2015.
  43. Brooks, Brian (November 26, 2010). "IDFA Opener "Position Among the Stars" Takes Top Festival Prize". Indie Wire. Retrieved November 29, 2010.
  44. "NFB's Highrise web project wins Digital Emmy". CBC News. April 4, 2011. Retrieved April 4, 2011.
  45. Mackie, John (June 11, 2011). "NFB soars in cyberspace". Vancouver Sun. Retrieved June 11, 2011.
  46. Moakley, Paul (June 22, 2011). "Multimedia Heartbreaker: The National Film Board of Canada". Time. Retrieved June 22, 2011.
  47. Dixon, Guy (July 22, 2011). "Bla Bla: An Arcade Fire collaborator gets into baby talk". Globe and Mail. Retrieved August 10, 2011.
  48. Boucher, Michèle (August 20, 2009). "La programmation numérique à l'ONF / Entretien avec Hugues Sweeney" (Interview). Le blogue (in French). Montreal: National Film Board of Canada. Retrieved June 11, 2011.
  49. Pringle, Ramona (17 October 2016). "New realities: Computers are adapting to humans". CBC News. Retrieved 2016-11-14.
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