Burt Lancaster

Burt Lancaster

in Desert Fury (1947)
Born Burton Stephen Lancaster
(1913-11-02)November 2, 1913
Manhattan, New York
Died October 20, 1994(1994-10-20) (aged 80)
Century City, Los Angeles, California
Cause of death Heart attack
Education DeWitt Clinton High School
Alma mater New York University
Occupation Actor, director, producer
Years active 1945–1990
Spouse(s) June Ernst
(m. 1935–1946; divorced)
Norma Anderson
(m. 1946–1969; divorced)
Susan Martin
(m. 1990–1994; his death)
Children Bill Lancaster

Burton Stephen "Burt" Lancaster (November 2, 1913 – October 20, 1994) was an American film actor. Initially known for playing "tough guys", Lancaster went on to achieve success with more complex and challenging roles, He was nominated four times for Academy Awards and won once for his work in Elmer Gantry in 1960. He also won a Golden Globe for that performance and BAFTA Awards for The Birdman of Alcatraz (1962) and Atlantic City (1980). During the 1950s his production company Hecht-Hill-Lancaster was highly successful, making films such as Marty (1955), Trapeze (1956), Sweet Smell of Success (1957), Run Silent, Run Deep (1958), and Separate Tables (1958).

The American Film Institute ranks Lancaster as #19 of the greatest male stars of classic Hollywood cinema.[1]



Lancaster was born in Manhattan, New York City, at his parents' home at 209 East 106th Street, between Second and Third Avenues, today the site of Benjamin Franklin Plaza. Lancaster was the son of Elizabeth (née Roberts) and James Henry Lancaster, who was a mailman.[2] Both of his parents were Protestants of working class origin. All of Lancaster's grandparents were Ulster immigrants to the United States; his maternal grandparents were from Belfast and were descendants of English immigrants to Ireland.[2] The family believed themselves to be related to Frederick Roberts, 1st Earl Roberts. Lancaster grew up in East Harlem and spent much of his time on the streets, where he developed great interest and skill in gymnastics while attending DeWitt Clinton High School, where he was a basketball star. Before he graduated from DeWitt Clinton, his mother died of a cerebral hemorrhage. Lancaster was accepted by New York University with an athletic scholarship, but subsequently dropped out.[3]

Circus career and military

Lancaster and Nick Cravat, performing with the Federal Theatre Project Circus (1935–38)
Cravat and Lancaster performing on the horizontal bars

At the age of 19, Lancaster met Nick Cravat, with whom he developed a lifelong partnership. Together they learned to act in local theatre productions and circus arts at Union Settlement, one of the city's oldest settlement houses.[4] They formed the acrobat duo Lang and Cravat in the 1930s and soon joined the Kay Brothers circus. However, in 1939, an injury forced Lancaster to give up the profession, with great regret. He then found temporary work, first as a salesman for Marshall Fields and then as a singing waiter in various restaurants.[5]

The United States having then entered World War II, Lancaster joined the United States Army in 1942 and performed with the Army's Twenty-First Special Services Division, one of the military groups organized to follow the troops on the ground and provide USO entertainment to keep up morale. He served with General Mark Clark's Fifth Army in Italy from 1943–45.[6]

Film career


With Ava Gardner in The Killers (1946)

Although initially unenthusiastic about acting, after returning to New York from his Army service, Lancaster auditioned for a Broadway play and was offered a role. Although Harry Brown's A Sound of Hunting had a run of only three weeks, Lancaster's performance attracted the interest of a Hollywood agent, Harold Hecht and, through him, Lancaster was brought to the attention of producer Hal B. Wallis, who signed him to an eight-movie contract. Lancaster's first filmed movie was Desert Fury. Fortunately for Lancaster, producer Mark Hellinger approached him to star in The Killers, in 1946, which was completed and released prior to Desert Fury and to great critical success.

The tall, muscular actor won significant acclaim and appeared in two more films the following year. Subsequently, he played in a variety of films, especially in dramas, thrillers, and military and adventure films. In two, The Flame and the Arrow and The Crimson Pirate, a friend from his circus years, Nick Cravat, played a key supporting role, and both actors impressed audiences with their acrobatic prowess.

In 1953, Lancaster played one of his best-remembered roles with Deborah Kerr in From Here to Eternity. The American Film Institute acknowledged the iconic status of the scene from that film in which Deborah Kerr and he make love on a Hawaiian beach amid the crashing waves. The organization named it one of "AFI's top 100 Most Romantic Films" of all time.

Lancaster won the 1960 Academy Award for Best Actor, a Golden Globe Award, and the New York Film Critics Award for his performance in Elmer Gantry. He followed this with widely diverse roles, including a Nazi war criminal on trial for his life in Judgment at Nuremberg, a convict serving a life sentence in Birdman of Alcatraz, and a proud Italian nobleman in The Leopard. He also played a US Air Force general attempting a coup in the political thriller Seven Days in May.

Drawing of Lancaster after he won an Oscar for Elmer Gantry (1960). Artist: Nicholas Volpe

In 1966, at the age of 52, Lancaster appeared nude in director Frank Perry's film, The Swimmer in what the critic Roger Ebert called, "his finest performance".[7] Prior to working on The Swimmer, Lancaster was terrified of the water because he did not know how to swim. In preparation for the film, he took swimming lessons from UCLA swim coach Bob Horn.[8] The film was not released until 1968, when it proved to be a commercial failure, though Lancaster remained proud of the movie and his performance.

Lancaster co-starred with Lee Marvin in the 1966 western adventure film, The Professionals, and with Dean Martin in the first of the so-called disaster film blockbusters, Airport, one of the biggest box-office hits of 1970 and, at that time, reportedly the highest-grossing film in the history of Universal Pictures.

During the latter part of his career, Lancaster left adventure and acrobatic films behind and portrayed more distinguished characters. This period brought him work on several European productions, with directors such as Luchino Visconti and Bernardo Bertolucci.

Lancaster sought demanding roles, and if he liked a part or a director, he was prepared to work for much lower pay than he might have earned elsewhere. He even helped to finance movies in whose artistic value he believed. He also mentored directors such as Sydney Pollack and John Frankenheimer and appeared in several television films. Lancaster's last film was Field of Dreams (1989).

For his contribution to the motion picture industry, Lancaster has a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at 6801 Hollywood Boulevard.

Directing and producing

Lancaster was an early and successful actor/producer. When approached to venture into the film business, after having been in the theater for only a brief period, he chose not to sign with a major studio. Instead he signed with agent Harold Hecht, who promised him the opportunity to produce their own movies within five years of hitting Hollywood. Hecht kept his promise and the two formed a partnership production company under the name Norma Productions, named after Lancaster's wife. Their first movie together was Kiss the Blood Off My Hands, released in 1948. Hecht and Lancaster produced two additional films in the early 1950s under the Norma Productions company; The Flame and the Arrow in 1950 and Ten Tall Men in 1951, two swashbucklers selected to showcase Lancaster's acrobatic skills.

In 1951 the actor/producer duo changed the company's name to Hecht-Lancaster Productions. The first film under the new name was another swashbuckler: The Crimson Pirate, released in 1952. This was followed by Apache two years later. In 1954 Lancaster was hired to star in the Warner Brothers film His Majesty O'Keefe. This proved to be a turning point for both Lancaster and his company. Lancaster had insisted that the film be produced by Hecht. This gave him the freedom to (unaccreditedly) co-direct the film, his first foray into the position. His Majesty O'Keefe featured a new Hollywood writer on board. James Hill immediately hit it off with Lancaster and Hecht and he was invited to co-produce upcoming Hecht-Lancaster films, giving up his writer position. Hill co-produced the next two Hecht-Lancaster films; Vera Cruz, released in 1954 and The Kentuckian released in 1955 and directed by Lancaster in his accredited directorial debut.

Without Hill, Hecht and Lancaster produced Marty, a 1955 film starring Ernest Borgnine, which won both the Academy Award for Best Picture and the Palme d'Or award at the Cannes Film Festival. Marty was also the first film produced by the company not to feature Lancaster in an acting role. Vera Cruz had been a huge success but Marty secured Hecht-Lancaster as one of the most successful independent production companies in Hollywood at the time. In 1955 Hill was made an equal partner in the company and the name was upgraded to Hill-Hecht-Lancaster, releasing their first film in 1956; Trapeze. Trapeze went on to become the production company's top box office success. Following Trapeze Lancaster worked with Tony Curtis again on Sweet Smell of Success (released in 1957), a co-production between Hill-Hecht-Lancaster and Curtis' own company Curtleigh Productions (co-owned with his wife, Janet Leigh). In 1956 Lancaster and Hecht entered the music industry with the companies Hecht-Lancaster & Buzzell Music and Calyork Music.[9]

Hill-Hecht-Lancaster produced seven additional films in the late 1950s; four starring Lancaster; Run Silent, Run Deep (1958), Separate Tables (1958), The Devil's Disciple (1959) and The Unforgiven (1960), and three without Lancaster: The Bachelor Party (1956), Take a Giant Step (1959) and Summer of the Seventeenth Doll (1960). Additionally Hill-Hecht-Lancaster served as the production company for the 1960-1961 TV series Whiplash. The "H-H-L" team impressed Hollywood with its success; as Life wrote in 1957, "[a]fter the independent production of a baker's dozen of pictures, it has yet to have its first flop ... (They were also good pictures.)." [10]

The Hill-Hecht-Lancaster Productions company dissolved in 1960, after Hill ruptured his relation with both Hecht and Lancaster. Hill went on to produce a single additional film, The Happy Thieves, in a new production company, Hillworth Productions, co-owned with his wife Rita Hayworth. Hecht and Lancaster worked on two more films together: The Young Savages, released in 1961, and Birdman of Alcatraz, released in 1962 through Norma Productions as the production company's final film. Hecht went on to produce five films without Lancaster's assistance, through his company Harold Hecht Films Productions between 1961 and 1967, including another Academy Award winner, Cat Ballou, starring Lee Marvin and Jane Fonda. Lancaster and Hecht would reunite twelve years after Birdman of Alcatraz for what ended up being Hecht's final film, Ulzana's Raid, in 1972.

In 1967, Lancaster formed a new partnership with Roland Kibbee, who had already worked as a writer on five Lancaster projects; Ten Tall Men, The Crimson Pirate, Three Sailors and a Girl (in which Lancaster made a cameo appearance), Vera Cruz and The Devil's Disciple. Through Norlan Productions, Lancaster and Kibbee produced The Scalphunters in 1968, Valdez Is Coming in 1971 (which was also written by Kibbee) and The Midnight Man in 1974. The Midnight Man was written and directed by both Kibbee and Lancaster, and would be the actor's final film as a producer.[11] In his career, Lancaster produced twenty-three films, directed three and wrote for one.

Frequent collaborations


Burt Lancaster appeared in a total of seventeen films produced by his agent Harold Hecht. Eight of these were co-produced by James Hill. He also appeared in eight films produced by Hal B. Wallis and two with producer Mark Hellinger. Although Lancaster's work alongside Kirk Douglas was mostly known as a successful pair of actors, Douglas in fact produced four films for the pair, through his production companies Bryna Productions and Joel Productions. Roland Kibbee also produced three Lancaster films. Lancaster was also cast in two Stanley Kramer productions.


Roland Kibbee wrote for seven Lancaster films.


Lancaster used make-up veteran Robert Schiffer in twenty credited films, hiring Schiffer on nearly all the films he produced.

Health problems and death

Burt Lancaster's grave

As Lancaster grew older, he became increasingly plagued by atherosclerosis, barely surviving a routine gall bladder operation in January 1980. Following two minor heart attacks, he had to undergo an emergency quadruple coronary bypass in 1983, after which he was extremely weak. However, he still managed to continue acting. In 1988, Lancaster was well enough to attended a Congressional hearing with old colleagues such as Jimmy Stewart and Ginger Rogers to protest media magnate Ted Turner's plan to colorize various black-and-white films from the 1930s and 1940s. His acting career ended after he suffered a stroke on November 30, 1990, which left him partly paralyzed and largely unable to speak. He died in his Century City apartment in Los Angeles from a third heart attack at 4:50 am on October 20, 1994 at the age of 80.

Lancaster was cremated and his ashes were buried under a large oak tree in Westwood Memorial Park located in Westwood Village, Los Angeles County, California. A small, square ground plaque inscribed only with "BURT LANCASTER 1913–1994" marks his final resting place. Upon his death, as he requested, he had no memorial or funeral service.[14]

Personal life

Lancaster's lookalike son Bill in The Big Valley (1967)

Marriages and relationships

Lancaster vigorously guarded his private life. He was married three times. His first two marriages – to June Ernst from 1935 to 1946 and to Norma Anderson from 1946 to 1969 – ended in divorce. His third marriage, to Susan Martin, was from September 1990 until his death in 1994. All five of his children were with Norma Anderson: Bill, who became a screenwriter, James, Susan, Joanna, and Sighle (pronounced Sheila). He claimed he was romantically involved with Deborah Kerr during the filming of From Here to Eternity in 1953.[15] However, Kerr stated that while there was a spark of attraction, nothing ever happened. He did have an affair with Joan Blondell. In her 1980 autobiography, Shelley Winters claimed to have had a long affair with him.[16] Years after his death, documents released by the FBI and his family revealed that Lancaster "had been troubled by bouts of insecurity and depression" and "had an intensely predatory sex life which included many affairs with men."[17]

Political views

Lancaster was a vocal supporter of liberal political causes, and frequently spoke out in support of racial minorities, including at the March on Washington in 1963. He was a vocal opponent of the Vietnam War and political movements such as McCarthyism, and he helped pay for the successful defense of a soldier accused of "fragging" (murdering) another soldier during that war.[18] In 1968, Lancaster actively supported the presidential candidacy of antiwar Senator Eugene McCarthy of Minnesota, and frequently spoke on his behalf during the Democratic primaries. He campaigned heavily for George McGovern in the 1972 presidential election. In 1985, Lancaster joined the fight against AIDS after his close friend, Rock Hudson, contracted the disease. He campaigned for Michael Dukakis in the 1988 presidential election.


The centennial of Lancaster's birth was honored at New York City's Film Society of Lincoln Center in May 2013 with the screening of 12 of the actor's finest films, from The Killers of 1946 to Atlantic City in 1981.[19]

Filmography and awards


Year Film Role Notes
1946 The Killers 'Swede' Andersen With Ava Gardner.
1947 Brute Force Joe Collins With Hume Cronyn
1947 Desert Fury Tom Hanson With Lizabeth Scott
1948 I Walk Alone Frankie Madison With Kirk Douglas
1948 All My Sons Chris Keller With Edward G. Robinson
1948 Sorry, Wrong Number Henry Stevenson With Barbara Stanwyck
1948 Kiss the Blood Off My Hands William Earle 'Bill' Saunders With Joan Fontaine
1949 Criss Cross Steve Thompson, narrator With Yvonne de Carlo
1949 Rope of Sand Michael (Mike) Davis With Paul Henreid
1950 The Flame and the Arrow Dardo Bartoli With Virginia Mayo
1950 Mister 880 Steve Buchanan With Dorothy McGuire
1951 Vengeance Valley Owen Daybright With Robert Walker
1951 Jim Thorpe – All-American Jim Thorpe With Charles Bickford
1951 Ten Tall Men Sergeant Mike Kincaid With Jody Lawrance
1952 Crimson Pirate, TheThe Crimson Pirate Capitan Vallo With Nick Cravat
1952 Come Back, Little Sheba Doc Delaney With Shirley Booth
1953 South Sea Woman Master Gunnery Sgt. James O'Hearn With Virginia Mayo
1953 From Here to Eternity 1st Sergeant Milton Warden New York Film Critics Circle Award for Best Actor
Nominated—Academy Award for Best Actor
1953 Three Sailors and a Girl Marine (uncredited) With Jane Powell
1954 His Majesty O'Keefe Captain David Dion O'Keefe, narrator With Joan Rice
1954 Apache Massai With Jean Peters
1954 Vera Cruz Joe Erin With Gary Cooper
1955 Kentuckian, TheThe Kentuckian Elias Wakefield (Big Eli) Director
Nominated—Golden Lion for Best Director
1955 The Rose Tattoo Alvaro Mangiacavallo With Anna Magnani
1956 Trapeze Mike Ribble With Gina Lollobrigida and Tony Curtis
Silver Bear for Best Actor at Berlin[20]
1956 Rainmaker, TheThe Rainmaker Bill Starbuck, a.k.a. Bill Smith, Bill Harley, Tornado Johnson Nominated—Golden Globe Award for Best Actor – Motion Picture Drama
1957 Gunfight at the O.K. Corral Marshal Wyatt Earp With Kirk Douglas
Laurel Award for Top Male Action Star
1957 Sweet Smell of Success J.J. Hunsecker With Tony Curtis, written by Ernest Lehman
1958 Run Silent, Run Deep Lieutenant Commander Jim Bledsoe With Clark Gable
1958 Separate Tables John Malcolm With Rita Hayworth and David Niven
1959 Devil's Disciple, TheThe Devil's Disciple The Reverend Anthony Anderson With Kirk Douglas and Laurence Olivier
1960 Unforgiven, TheThe Unforgiven Ben Zachary With Audrey Hepburn
1960 Elmer Gantry Elmer Gantry Academy Award for Best Actor
Golden Globe Award for Best Actor – Motion Picture Drama
Laurel Award for Top Male Dramatic Performance
New York Film Critics Circle Award for Best Actor
Nominated—BAFTA Award for Best Actor in a Leading Role
1961 Young Savages, TheThe Young Savages ADA Hank Bell With Dina Merrill
1961 Judgment at Nuremberg Dr. Ernst Janning With Spencer Tracy
1962 Birdman of Alcatraz Robert Stroud BAFTA Award for Best Actor in a Leading Role
Volpi Cup for Best Actor
Nominated—Academy Award for Best Actor
Nominated—Golden Globe Award for Best Actor – Motion Picture Drama
Nominated—Laurel Award for Top Male Dramatic Performance
1963 Child Is Waiting, AA Child Is Waiting Dr. Ben Clark With Judy Garland
1963 Leopard, TheThe Leopard Prince Don Fabrizio Salina With Claudia Cardinale
1963 List of Adrian Messenger, TheThe List of Adrian Messenger Cameo With George C. Scott
1964 Seven Days in May General James Mattoon Scott With Kirk Douglas
Nominated—Laurel Award for Top Male Dramatic Performance
1964 Train, TheThe Train Paul Labiche With Jeanne Moreau
Nominated—Laurel Award for Top Male Action Performance
1965 Hallelujah Trail, TheThe Hallelujah Trail Colonel Thaddeus Gearhart With Lee Remick
1966 Professionals, TheThe Professionals Bill Dolworth With Lee Marvin
1967 All About People Narrator
1968 Scalphunters, TheThe Scalphunters Joe Bass With Shelley Winters
Nominated—Laurel Award for Top Male Action Performance
1968 Swimmer, TheThe Swimmer Ned Merrill With Janice Rule
1969 Jenny is a Good Thing Narrator A Head Start film
1969 Castle Keep Major Abraham Falconer With Peter Falk
1969 Gypsy Moths, TheThe Gypsy Moths Mike Rettig With Deborah Kerr
1970 King: A Filmed Record... Montgomery to Memphis Himself
1970 Airport Mel Bakersfeld With Dean Martin
1971 Lawman Bannock Town Marshal Jered Maddox With Lee J. Cobb
1971 Valdez Is Coming Marshal Bob Valdez With Susan Clark
1972 Ulzana's Raid U.S. Cavalry Scout McIntosh With Bruce Davison
1973 Scorpio Cross With Alain Delon
1973 Executive Action James Farrington With Robert Ryan
1974 Midnight Man, TheThe Midnight Man Jim Slade Co-Director
1974 Gruppo di famiglia in un interno (Conversation Piece) The Professor David di Donatello for Best Actor
Fotogramas de Plata Award for Best Foreign Movie Performer
1976 Buffalo Bill and the Indians, or Sitting Bull's History Lesson Ned Buntline With Paul Newman
1976 1900 (Novecento) Alfredo's Grandfather With Robert De Niro
1976 Cassandra Crossing, TheThe Cassandra Crossing Colonel Stephen Mackenzie With Sophia Loren
1977 Twilight's Last Gleaming General Lawrence Dell With Richard Widmark
1977 Island of Dr. Moreau, TheThe Island of Dr. Moreau Dr. Paul Moreau
1978 Go Tell the Spartans Major Asa Barker With Craig Wasson
1978 The Unknown War Burt Lancaster (Narrator)
1979 Zulu Dawn Colonel Anthony Durnford With Peter O'Toole
1980 Atlantic City Lou Pascal BAFTA Award for Best Actor in a Leading Role
Boston Society of Film Critics Award for Best Actor
David di Donatello for Best Actor
Fotogramas de Plata Award for Best Foreign Movie Performer
Kansas City Film Critics Circle Award for Best Actor
Los Angeles Film Critics Association Award for Best Actor
National Society of Film Critics Award for Best Actor
New York Film Critics Circle Award for Best Actor
Nominated—Academy Award for Best Actor
Nominated—Genie Award for Best Performance by an Actor in a Leading Role
Nominated—Golden Globe Award for Best Actor – Motion Picture Drama
1981 Cattle Annie and Little Britches Bill Doolin, the Oklahoma outlaw With Amanda Plummer and Diane Lane
1981 La pelle General Mark Clark With Marcello Mastroianni
1983 Local Hero Felix Happer Nominated—BAFTA Award for Best Actor in a Supporting Role
1983 Osterman Weekend, TheThe Osterman Weekend CIA Director Maxwell Danforth With Rutger Hauer
1985 Little Treasure Delbert Teschemacher With Margot Kidder
1986 Tough Guys Harry Doyle With Kirk Douglas
1987 Il Giorno prima aka Control Dr. Herbert Monroe With Ben Gazzara
1988 Rocket Gibraltar Levi Rockwell With Patricia Clarkson
1989 Field of Dreams Dr. Archibald 'Moonlight' Graham With Kevin Costner
1989 La Bottega dell'orefice The Jeweller With Olivia Hussey


Year Film Role Notes
1974 Moses the Lawgiver Moses mini-series
1976 Victory at Entebbe Shimon Peres with Anthony Hopkins
1978 Unknown War, TheThe Unknown War As himself, narrator 20 episode USA-USSR archival documentary series on World War II
1982 Marco Polo Teobaldo Visconti / Pope Gregory X mini-series
1982 The Life of Verdi Narrator in American version mini-series
1985 Scandal Sheet Harold Fallen
1986 Väter und Söhne – Eine deutsche Tragödie Geheimrat Carl Julius Deutz mini-series
Barnum (1986) P.T. Barnum directed by Lee Phillips 1986 On Wings of Eagles Lieutenant Colonel Arthur D. "Bull" Simons mini-series
1989 I Promessi sposi Cardinal Federigo Borromeo mini-series
1990 Phantom of the Opera, TheThe Phantom of the Opera Gerard Carriere mini-series
Nominated – Golden Globe Award for Best Actor – Miniseries or Television Film
1990 Voyage of Terror: The Achille Lauro Affair Leon Klinghoffer
1991 Separate but Equal John W. Davis

Box office ranking

For a number of years exhibitors voted Lancaster as among the most popular stars:

In other media

Spanish music group Hombres G released an album named La cagaste, Burt Lancaster (You messed up, Burt Lancaster) in 1986. Thomas Hart Benton painted a movie poster for The Kentuckian, which Burt posed for.[21]



  1. "America's Greatest Legends." Archived July 7, 2011, at the Wayback Machine. American Film Institute. Retrieved: July 29, 2009.
  2. 1 2 Buford 2008, p. 12.
  3. Buford 2008, p. 28.
  4. Andreychuk 2005, p. 3.
  5. Andreychuk 2005, p. 6.
  6. Andreychuk 2005, p. 7.
  7. Ebert, Roger. Review: "The Swimmer." rogerebert.com, July 2, 1968.
  8. Innis, Chris. "The Story of The Swimmer" documentary, available on the Grindhouse Releasing 2014 release of The Swimmer on Blu-ray/DVD.
  9. "Buzzell Ties with Hecht & Lancaster", Billboard, March 16 1957, p8
  10. Hodgins, Eric. "Amid Ruins of an Empire a New Hollywood Arises." Life, June 10, 1957, p. 146. Retrieved: April 22, 2012.
  11. Buford 2008, pp. 138, 354.
  12. "Nick Cravat and Burt Lancaster have starred together in 10 movies." Deja Scene, 2014.
  13. Guillen, Michael. "Gun, Smile, Smirk: The Films of Burt Lancaster." twitchfilm.com, November 16, 2010.
  14. "Short bio-article w/burial location and pictures." Find a Grave. Retrieved: November 18, 2011.
  15. Buford 2008, pp. 127–30.
  16. Winters 1980, p. 259.
  17. Jeffreys, Daniel (March 18, 2000) Screen god Burt's sex life set the stage for Hollywood gay scene Independent Print Limited The Independent Retrieved February 13, 2016.
  18. Buford 2008, p. 266.
  19. Holden, Stephen. "Film: lots of Lancaster at Lincoln Center." The New York Times, May 12, 2013.
  20. "6th Berlin International Film Festival: Prize Winners". berlinale.de. Retrieved December 27, 2009.
  21. painted by Thomas Hart Benton (1954). "The Kentuckian". LACMA Collections.


  • Andreychuk, Ed. Burt Lancaster: A Filmography And Biography. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers, 2005. ISBN 978-0-7864-2339-2.
  • Buford, Kate. Burt Lancaster: An American Life. London: Aurum Press, 2008. ISBN 1-84513-385-4.
  • Winters, Shelley. Shelley: Also known as Shirley. New York: Morrow, 1980. ISBN 978-0-688-03638-6.

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