Boarding school

A boarding school is a school at which most or all of the students live during the part of the year that they go to lessons. The word 'boarding' is used in the sense of "bed and board," i.e., lodging and meals. Some boarding schools also have day students who attend the institution by day and return to their families in the evenings.

Many independent (private) schools are boarding schools. Boarding school pupils (a.k.a. "boarders") normally return home during the school holidays and often weekends, but in some cultures may spend most of their childhood and adolescent life away from their families. In the United States, boarding schools comprise various grades, most commonly grades seven or nine through grade twelve—the high school years. Other schools are for younger children, grades two through eight. A military school, or military academy, also features military education and training.[1] Some American boarding schools offer a post-graduate year of study to help students prepare for college entrance, most commonly to assimilate foreign students to American culture and academics before college.

In the former Soviet Union schools were introduced; these sometimes are known as Internat-schools (Russian: Школа-интернат) (from Latin: internus). They varied in their organization. Some schools were a type of specialized school with a specific focus in a particular field or fields such as mathematics, physics, language, science, sports, etc. Other schools were associated with orphanages after which all children enrolled in Internat-school automatically. Also, separate boarding schools were established for children with special needs (schools for blind, for deaf and other). General schools offered "extended stay" programs (Russian: Группа продленного дня) featuring cheap meals for children and preventing them from coming home too early before parents were back from work (education in the Soviet Union was free). In post-soviet countries, the concept of boarding school differs from country to country.


Typical characteristics

The term boarding school often refers to classic British boarding schools and many boarding schools around the world are modeled on these.[2]

A typical boarding school has several separate residential houses, either within the school grounds or in the surrounding area. Pupils generally need permission to go outside defined school bounds; they may be allowed to travel off-campus at certain times.

Depending on country and context, boarding schools generally offer one or more options: full (students stay at the school full-time), weekly (students stay in the school from Monday through Friday, then return home for the weekend), or on a flexible schedule (students choose when to board, e.g. during exam week).

A number of senior teaching staff are appointed as housemasters, housemistresses, dorm parents, prefects, or residential advisors, each of whom takes quasi-parental responsibility (in loco parentis) for perhaps 50 students resident in their house or dormitory at all times but particularly outside school hours. Each may be assisted in the domestic management of the house by a housekeeper often known as matron, and by a house tutor for academic matters, often providing staff of each gender. In the U.S., boarding schools often have a resident family that lives in the dorm, known as dorm parents. They also have janitorial staff for maintenance and housekeeping, but typically do not have tutors associated with an individual dorm. Nevertheless, older pupils are often unsupervised by staff, and a system of monitors or prefects gives limited authority to senior pupils. Houses readily develop distinctive characters, and a healthy rivalry between houses is often encouraged in sport. See also House system.

Houses or dorms usually include study-bedrooms or dormitories, a dining room or refectory where pupils take meals at fixed times, a library and possibly study carrels where pupils can do their homework. Houses may also have common rooms for television and relaxation and kitchens for snacks, and occasionally storage facilities for bicycles or other sports equipment. Some facilities may be shared between several houses or dorms.

In some schools, each house has pupils of all ages, in which case there is usually a prefect system, which gives older pupils some privileges and some responsibility for the welfare of the younger ones. In others, separate houses accommodate needs of different years or classes. In some schools, day pupils are assigned to a dorm or house for social activities and sports purposes.

Anderson Hall at Asheville School in Asheville, North Carolina, is one of three residential halls at the co-ed college preparatory boarding school for students in grades 9 through 12. Founded in 1900, Asheville School has more than 75% of its students living on campus.

Each student has an individual timetable, which in the early years allows little discretion.[3] Boarders and day students are taught together in school hours and in most cases continue beyond the school day to include sports, clubs and societies, or excursions. As well as the usual academic facilities such as classrooms, halls, libraries and laboratories, boarding schools often provide a wide variety of facilities for extracurricular activities such as music rooms, gymnasiums, sports fields and school grounds, boats, squash courts, swimming pools, cinemas and theatres. A school chapel is often found on site. Day students often stay on after school to use these facilities.

Dormitory at The Armidale School, Australia, 1898

British boarding schools have three terms a year, approximately twelve weeks each, with a few days' half-term holiday during which pupils are expected to go home or at least away from school. There may be several exeats, or weekends, in each half of the term when pupils may go home or away (e.g. international students may stay with their appointed guardians, or with a host family). Boarding pupils nowadays often go to school within easy traveling distance of their homes, and so may see their families frequently; e.g. families are encouraged to come and support school sports teams playing at home against other schools, or for school performances in music, drama or theatre.

Most school dormitories have an "in your room by" and a "lights out" time, depending on their age, when the pupils are required to prepare for bed, after which no talking is permitted. Such rules may be difficult to enforce; pupils may often try to break them, for example by using their laptop computers or going to another pupils room to talk or play computer games. International students may take advantage of the time difference between countries (e.g. 7 hours between UK and China) to contact friends or family. Students sharing study rooms are less likely to disturb others and may be given more latitude.

Some boarding schools allow only boarding students, while others have both boarding students and day students who go home at the end of the school day. Day students are sometimes known as day boys or day girls. Some schools welcome day students to attend breakfast and dinner, while others charge a fee. For schools that have designated study hours or quiet hours in the evenings, students on campus (including day students) are usually required to observe the same "quiet" rules (such as no television, students must stay in their rooms, library or study hall, etc.). Schools that have both boarding and day students sometimes describe themselves as semi-boarding schools or day boarding schools. Some schools also have students who board during the week but go home on weekends: these are known as weekly boarders, quasi-boarders, or five-day boarders.

Traveling boarding schools, like THINK Global School, partner with an IB school in each country they visit

Another important distinction among boarding schools is between co-ed schools and single-gender schools serving either all boys or all girls.

Other forms of residential schools

Schloss Torgelow, a renowned Gymnasium boarding school in Germany, that leads to the prestigious Abitur exams.

Boarding schools are residential schools; however, not all residential schools are "classic" boarding schools. Other forms of residential schools include:

Applicable regulations

In the UK, almost all boarding schools are independent schools, which are not subject to the national curriculum or other educational regulations applicable to state schools. Nevertheless, there are some regulations, primarily for health and safety purposes, as well as the general law. The Department for Children, Schools and Families, in conjunction with the Department of Health of the United Kingdom, has prescribed guidelines for boarding schools, called the National Boarding Standards.[8]

One example of regulations covered within the National Boarding Standards are those for the minimum floor area or living space required for each student and other aspects of basic facilities. The minimum floor area of a dormitory accommodating two or more students is defined as the number of students sleeping in the dormitory multiplied by 4.2 m², plus 1.2 m². A minimum distance of 0.9 m should also be maintained between any two beds in a dormitory, bedroom or cubicle. In case students are provided with a cubicle, then each student must be provided with a window and a floor area of 5.0 m² at the least. A bedroom for a single student should be at least of floor area of 6.0 m². Boarding schools must provide a total floor area of at least 2.3 m² living accommodation for every boarder. This should also be incorporated with at least one bathtub or shower for every ten students.

These are some of the few guidelines set by the department amongst many others. It could probably be observed that not all boarding schools around the world meet these minimum basic standards, despite their apparent appeal.


The practice of sending children to other families or to schools so that they could learn together is of very long standing, recorded in classical literature and in UK records going back over 1,000 years. In Europe, a practice developed by early medival times of sending boys to be taught by literate clergymen, either in monasteries or as pages in great households. The school often considered the world's oldest boarding school, The King's School, Canterbury, counts the development of the monastery school in around 597 AD to be the date of the school's founding. The author of the Croyland Chronicle recalls being tested on his grammar by Edward the Confessor's Queen Editha in the abbey cloisters as a Westminster schoolboy, in around the 1050s. Monastic schools as such were generally dissolved with the monasteries themselves under Henry VIII, although for example Westminster School was specifically preserved by the King's letters patent and it seems likely that most schools were immediately replaced. Winchester College founded by Bishop William of Wykeham in 1382 and Oswestry School founded by David Holbache in 1407 are the oldest boarding schools in continual operation.

Boarding schools manifest themselves in different ways in different societies. For example, in some societies children start boarding school at an earlier age than in others. In some societies, a tradition has developed in which families send their children to the same boarding school for generations. One observation that appears to apply globally is that a significantly larger number of boys than girls attend boarding school and for a longer span of time.

United States

In the United States, boarding schools for students below the age of 13 are called junior boarding schools, and are not as common and not as encouraged as in the United Kingdom and India. The oldest junior boarding school in the United States is the Fay School in Southborough, Massachusetts. Other boarding schools are intended for high school age students, generally of ages 14–18. About half of one percent or (.5%) of school children attend boarding schools in the United States. This is much lower as compared to Britain or commonwealth countries. In Britain about one percent of children are sent to boarding schools.[9][10][11] Boarding schools for this age group are often referred to as prep schools.

Within the Northeast, some notable examples with pre-Revolutionary and even colonial origins include Brooks School, Choate Rosemary Hall, Deerfield Academy, Dublin School, The Governor's Academy, Groton School, The Hotchkiss School, Milton Academy, Northfield Mount Hermon School, Phillips Academy Andover, Phillips Exeter Academy, Pomfret School, Portsmouth Abbey School, The Putney School, St. Paul's, Tabor Academy, The Taft School, Trinity-Pawling School, and Westminster School.

Outside of New England, notable boarding schools include Christ School, Episcopal High School (Alexandria, Virginia), St. Andrew's School (Middletown, Delaware), St. George's School, Asheville School, Army and Navy Academy, Culver Military Academy, Cranbrook Kingswood, Western Reserve Academy, Shenandoah Valley Academy, The Masters School, Woodberry Forest School, Foxcroft School, Saint James School, The Hockaday School, Millbrook School, Westtown School, NJ West Ridge Academy, Blair Academy, The Hill School, The Lawrenceville School, The Peddie School, Mercersburg Academy, Shady Side Academy, Valley Forge Military Academy, Oregon Episcopal School, Cate School, Stevenson School, The Thacher School,North Broward Preparatory School, The Village School, Windermere Preparatory School and The Emma Willard School.

"St. Grottlesex" is the colloquial name for the New England boarding schools, and comprises elements of the names of five geographically grouped schools: St. Paul's School, St. Mark's School in Southborough, MA, Groton School in Groton, MA, Middlesex School in Concord, MA, and St. George's School, Newport in Newport, Rhode Island.

Native American schools

Pupils at Carlisle Indian Industrial School, Pennsylvania (c. 1900)

In the late 19th century, the United States government undertook a policy of educating Native American youth in the ways of the dominant Western culture so that Native Americans might then be able to assimilate into Western society. At these boarding schools, managed and regulated by the government, Native American students were subjected to a number of tactics to prepare them for life outside their reservation homes.[12]

In accordance with the assimilation methods used at the boarding schools, the education that the Native American children received at these institutions centered on the dominant society's construction of gender norms and ideals. Thus boys and girls were separated in almost every activity and their interactions were strictly regulated along the lines of Victorian ideals. In addition, the instruction that the children received reflected the roles and duties that they were to assume once outside the reservation. Thus girls were taught skills that could be used in the home, such as "sewing, cooking, canning, ironing, child care, and cleaning"[12] (Adams 150). Native American boys in the boarding schools were taught the importance of an agricultural lifestyle, with an emphasis on raising livestock and agricultural skills like "plowing and planting, field irrigation, the care of stock, and the maintenance of fruit orchards"[12] (Adams 149). These ideas of domesticity were in stark contrast to those existing in native communities and on reservations: many indigenous societies were based on a matrilineal system where the women's lineage was honored and the women's place in society respected. For example, women in indigenous communities held powerful roles in their own communities, undertaking tasks that Western society deemed only appropriate for men: indigenous women could be leaders, healers, and farmers.

While the Native American children were exposed to and were likely to adopt some of the ideals set out by the whites operating these boarding schools, many resisted and rejected the gender norms that were being imposed upon them. See also: Carlisle Indian Industrial School in Carlisle, Pennsylvania.

United Kingdom

Boarding schools in England started in medieval times, when boys were sent to be educated at a monastery or noble household, where a lone literate cleric could be found. In the 12th century, the Pope ordered all Benedictine monasteries such as Westminster to provide charity schools, and many public schools started when such schools attracted paying pupils. These public schools reflected the collegiate universities of Oxford and Cambridge, as in many ways they still do, and were accordingly staffed almost entirely by clergymen until the 19th century. Private tuition at home remained the norm for aristocratic families, and for girls in particular, but after the 16th century it was increasingly accepted that adolescents of any rank might best be educated collectively. The institution has thus adapted itself to changing social circumstances over 1,000 years.

Boarding preparatory schools tend to reflect the public schools they feed. They often have a more or less official tie to particular schools.

The classic British boarding school became highly popular during the colonial expansion of the British Empire. British colonial administrators abroad could ensure that their children were brought up in British culture at public schools at home in the UK, and local rulers were offered the same education for their sons. More junior expatriates would send their children to local British-run schools, which would also admit selected local children who might travel from considerable distances. The boarding schools, which inculcated their own values, became an effective way to encourage local people to share British ideals, and so help the British achieve their imperial goals.

One of the reasons sometimes stated for sending children to boarding schools is to develop wider horizons than their family can provide. A boarding school a family has attended for generations may define the culture parents aspire to for their children. Equally, by choosing a fashionable boarding school, parents may aspire to better their children by enabling them to mix on equal terms with children of the upper classes. However, such stated reasons may conceal other reasons for sending a child away from home.[13][14][15] These might apply to children who are considered too disobedient or underachieving, children from families with divorced spouses, and children to whom the parents do not much relate.[14][15] These reasons are rarely explicitly stated, though the child might be aware of them.[14][15]

In 1998, there were 772 private-sector boarding schools in England and 100,000 children attending boarding schools all over the United Kingdom. In England, they are an important factor in the class system. In Britain about one percent of children are sent to boarding schools.[9][10][11] Also in Britain children as young as 5 to 9 years of age are sent to boarding schools.[16]

Other Commonwealth countries

Further information: Stolen generation

Most societies around the world decline to make boarding schools the preferred option for the upbringing of their children. However, boarding schools are one of the preferred modes of education in former British colonies or Commonwealth countries like India, Pakistan, Nigeria, and other former African colonies of Great Britain. For instance in Ghana the majority of the secondary schools are boarding. In China some children are sent to boarding schools at 2 years of age.[17] In some countries, such as New Zealand and Sri Lanka, a number of state schools have boarding facilities. However, these state boarding schools are frequently the traditional single-sex state schools, whose ethos is much like that of their independent counterparts. Furthermore, the proportion of boarders at these schools is often much lower than at independent boarding schools, typically around 10%.


In Canada, the largest independent boarding school is Columbia International College, with an enrollment of 1,700 students from all over the world. Robert Land Academy in Wellandport, Ontario is Canada's only private military style boarding school for boys in Grades 6 through 12.


The Swiss government developed a strategy of fostering private boarding schools for foreign students as a business integral to the country's economy. Their boarding schools offer instruction in several major languages and have a large number of quality facilities organized through the Swiss Federation of Private Schools. The top five most expensive boarding schools in the world are the Swiss school Institut Le Rosey,[18] Beau Soleil, Collège du Léman and Collège Champittet.


Many boarding schools at the primary and secondary levels were established in rural areas of Mainland China. In recent years, due the rising middle class in the country and increased disposable incomes, many boarding schools have been established in China.

Sociological issues

Some elite university-preparatory boarding schools for pupils from age 13 to 18 are seen by sociologists as centers of socialization for the next generation of the political upper class and reproduces an elitist class system.[19] This attracts families who value power and hierarchy for the socialization of their family members.[19] These families share a sense of entitlement to social class or hierarchy and power.[19]

Boarding schools are seen by certain families as centres of socialization where pupils mingle with others of similar social hierarchy[19] to form what is called an old boy network. Elite boarding school pupils are brought up with the assumption that they are meant to control society.[19] Significant numbers of them enter the political upper class of society or join the financial elite in fields such as international banking and venture capital.[19] Elite boarding school socialization causes students to internalize a strong sense of entitlement and social control or hierarchy.[19] This form of socialization is called "deep structure socialization" by Peter Cookson & Caroline Hodges (1985).[19][20] This refers to the way in which boarding schools not only manage to control the pupils' physical lives but also their emotional lives.[19][20]

Boarding school establishment involves control of behaviour regarding several aspects of life including what is appropriate and/or acceptable which adolescents would consider as intrusive.[19][20] This boarding school socialization is carried over well after leaving school and into their dealings with the social world.[19] Thus it causes boarding school students to adhere to the values of the elite social class which they come from or which they aspire to be part of.[19] According to Peter W Cookson Jr (2009) the elitist tradition of preparatory boarding schools has declined due to the development of modern economy and the political rise of the liberal west coast of the United States of America.[19][20]

Socialization of role control and gender stratification

The boarding school socialization of control and hierarchy develops deep rooted and strong adherence to social roles and rigid gender stratification as documented in the research work of Sarah Chase.[19][21] She states that one of the surprising findings of her study was the highly gendered student culture in boarding school.[19][21] The social pressure of conformity was severe and several students abused performance drugs like Adderall and Ritalin for both academic performance and to lose weight.[19][21] The distinct and hierarchical nature of socialization and boarding school culture becomes very obvious in the manner pupils sit together and form cliques,[19][21] especially in what would traditionally be called a refectory in classic British boarding schools. This leads to pervasive form of explicit and implicit bullying in boarding schools with excessive competition between cliques and between individuals.[19][21] The rigid gender stratification and role control is displayed in the boys forming cliques on the basis of wealth and social background and in girls it is displayed in their overt acceptance that they would marry only for money.[19][21] This narcissistic tendency and gender stratification is also shown in their choice of only rich or affluent males as boyfriends.[19][21] According to Sarah (2008) most boarding school students get caught up in rigid socialization and gender roles.[19][21] She states that students are not able to display much sensitivity and emotional response and are unable to have more close relationships except on a superficial and politically correct level.[19][21] Students engage in social behaviour that would make them seem appropriate and rank high in social hierarchy.[19][21] This socialization makes boarding school students to adhere and perform extreme gender and social stereotypes even in their social life later on.[19][21] An alumnus of a military boarding school also questions whether leadership is truly being learned by the school's students.[22]

Psychological issues

The aspect of boarding school life with its round the clock habitation of pupils with each other in the same environment, involved in studying, sleeping and socializing leads to pressures and stress in boarding school life.[19] This is manifested in the form of hypercompetitiveness, use of recreational or illegal drugs and psychological depression that at times may manifest in suicide or its attempt.[19] Studies show that about 90% of boarding school pupils acknowledge that living in a total institution like boarding school has significant impact and changed their perception and interaction with social relationships.[19]

Total institution and child displacement

It is claimed that children may be sent to boarding schools to give more opportunities than their family can provide. However, that involves spending significant parts of one's early life in what may be seen as a total institution[23] and possibly experiencing social detachment, as suggested by social-psychologist Erving Goffman.[23] This may involve long-term separation from one's parents and culture, leading to the experience of homesickness [24][25][26] and emotional abandonment [14][15][16] and may give rise to a phenomenon known as the 'TCK' or third culture kid.[27]

Preparatory schoolboys live in a world completely dissociated from home life. They have a different vocabulary, a different moral system, even different voices. On their return to school from the holidays the change-over from home-self to school-self is almost instantaneous, whereas the reverse process takes a fortnight at least. A preparatory schoolboy, when caught off his guard, will call his mother 'Please, matron,' and always addresses any male relative or friend of the family as 'Sir', like a master. I used to do it. School life becomes the reality, and home life the illusion. In England, parents of the governing classes virtually lose any intimate touch with their children from about the age of eight, and any attempts on their parts to insinuate home feeling into school life are resented.
Robert Graves[28]

Some modern philosophies of education, such as constructivism and new methods of music training for children including Orff Schulwerk and the Suzuki method, make the everyday interaction of the child and parent an integral part of training and education. In children, separation involves maternal deprivation.[29] The European Union-Canada project "Child Welfare Across Borders" (2003),[13] an important international venture on child development, considers boarding schools as one form of permanent displacement of the child.[13] This view reflects a new outlook towards education and child growth in the wake of more scientific understanding of the human brain and cognitive development.

Data have not yet been tabulated regarding the statistical ratio of boys to girls that matriculate boarding schools, the total number of children in a given population in boarding schools by country, the average age across populations when children are sent to boarding schools, and the average length of education (in years) for boarding school students. There is also little evidence or research about the complete circumstances or complete set of reasons about sending kids to boarding schools.[11]

Boarding School Syndrome

Boarding School Syndrome was coined by the psychotherapist Joy Schaverien Phd in an article published in the British Journal of Psychotherapy in May 2011.The term is used to identify a set of lasting psychological problems that are observable in adults who, as children, were sent away from their home at an early age to boarding schools.

Children sent away to school at an early age suffer the sudden and often irrevocable loss of their primary attachments; for many this constitutes a significant trauma. Bullying and sexual abuse, by staff or other children, may follow and so new attachment figures may become unsafe. In order to adapt to the system, a defensive and protective encapsulation of the self may be acquired; the true identity of the person then remains hidden.This pattern distorts intimate relationships and may continue into adult life. The significance of this may go unnoticed in psychotherapy. It is proposed that one reason for this may be that the transference and, especially the breaks in psychotherapy, replay, for the patient, the childhood experience between school and home. Observations from clinical practice are substantiated by published testimonies, including those from established psychoanalysts who were themselves early boarders. (In the British Journal of Psychotherapy Vol. 27, No. 2, pp. 138–155, May 2011)

In popular culture

Further information: School story


Boarding schools and their surrounding settings and situations became in the late Victorian period a genre in British literature with its own identifiable conventions. (Typically, protagonists find themselves occasionally having to break school rules for honourable reasons the reader can identify with, and might get severely punished when caught but usually they do not embark on a total rebellion against the school as a system.)

Notable examples of the school story include:

The setting has also been featured in notable North American fiction:

There is also a huge boarding-school genre literature, mostly uncollected, in British comics and serials from the 1900s to the 1980s.

The subgenre of books and films set in a military or naval academy has many similarities with the above.

Films and television

See also


  1. Cadet, Linton Hall (23 June 2010). "Linton Hall Military School alumni memories: Linton Hall Military School from an adult point of view".
  2. Bamford T.W. (1967) Rise of the public schools: a study of boys public boarding schools in England and wales from 1837 to the present day. London : Nelson, 1967.
  3. Linton Hall Cadet, Linton Hall Military School Memories: One cadet's memoir, Arlington, VA.: Scrounge Press, 2014 ISBN 978-1-4959-3196-3
  4. Story, Louise (17 Aug 2005), "A Business Built on the Troubles of Teenagers", The New York Times
  5. "What is TGS?". Think Global School. Retrieved 15 September 2014.
  6. "Wilderness Therapy Program, Therapeutic Boarding School for Troubled Boys". Woodcreek Academy. Retrieved 2014-05-30.
  7. "The Oregon Story . Rural Voices: Three Days at Crane . Crane High School - OPB".
  8. "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 February 2006. Retrieved 2005-12-11.
  9. 1 2 Dansokho, S., Little, M., & Thomas, B. (2003). Residential services for children: definitions, numbers and classifications. Chicago: Chapin Hall Center for Children.
  10. 1 2 Department of Health. (1998). Caring for Children away from Home. Chichester: Wiley and Son
  11. 1 2 3 Little, M. Kohm, A. Thompson, R. (2005). "The impact of residential placement on child development: research and policy implications". International Journal of Social Welfare; 14, 200209. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2397.2005.00360.x
  12. 1 2 3 Adams, David Wallace. Education for Extinction: American Indians and the Boarding School Experience, 1875-1928. University of Kansas Press, Lawrence: 1995.
  13. 1 2 3 CWAB Session 6.2 Reasons for displacement European Union – Canada project Child welfare across borders (2003)
  14. 1 2 3 4 Duffell, N. "The Making of Them. The British Attitude to Children and the Boarding School System". (London: Lone Arrow Press, 2000).
  15. 1 2 3 4 Schaverien, J. (2004) Boarding School: The Trauma of the Privileged Child, in Journal of Analytical Psychology, vol 49, 683-705
  16. 1 2 Power A (2007) "Discussion of Trauma at the Threshold: The Impact of Boarding School on Attachment in Young Children", in ATTACHMENT: New Directions in Psychotherapy and Relational Psychoanalysis; Vol. 1, November 2007: pp. 313–320
  17. Markus, Francis (2004-06-10). "Asia-Pacific | Private school for China's youngest". BBC News. Retrieved 2016-09-18.
  18. "The most expensive boarding school in the world". 2015-01-28. Retrieved 2015-02-09.
  19. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 Cookson Jr, P.W. (2009)'Boarding Schools' in ‘The Child: an encyclopedic companion' (eds) Richard A Shweder. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. p 112-114
  20. 1 2 3 4 Cookson P W & Hodges C (1985) Preparring for power: America's Elite Boarding Schools
  21. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Sarah A Chase (2008) Perfectly Prep: Gender Extremes at a New England Prep School.
  22. Hall, Linton (2011-08-31). "Linton Hall Military School alumni memories: Did we learn leadership at Linton Hall Military School?". Retrieved 2016-09-18.
  23. 1 2 Goffman, Erving (1961) Asylums: Essays on the Social Situation of Mental Patients and Other Inmates. (New York: Doubleday Anchor, 1961); (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1968) ISBN 0-385-00016-2
  24. Brewin, C.R., Furnham, A. & Howes, M. (1989). Demographic and psychological determinants of homesickness and confiding among students. British Journal of Psychology, 80, 467477.
  25. Fisher, S., Frazer, N. & Murray, K (1986). Homesickness and health in boarding school children. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 6, 3547.
  26. Thurber A. Christopher (1999) The phenomenology of homesickness in boys, Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
  27. Pollock DC and Van Reken R (2001). Third Culture Kids. Nicholas Brealey Publishing/Intercultural Press. Yarmouth, Maine. ISBN 1-85788-295-4.
  28. Graves, Robert Goodbye to All That, chapter 3, page 24 Penguin Modern Classics 1967 edition
  29. Rutter, M (1972) Maternal Deprivation Reassessed. London:Penguin

Further reading

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