Back to the Future (franchise)

Back to the Future
Creator Robert Zemeckis
Bob Gale
Original work Back to the Future
Print publications
Books See the Books section
Comics See the Comics section
Films and television
Films Back to the Future
Back to the Future Part II
Back to the Future Part III
Television series Back to the Future
Theatrical presentations
Musicals Back to the Future: The Musical
Video games List of video games
Soundtracks Back to the Future: Music from the Motion Picture Soundtrack
Back to the Future Part II: Original Motion Picture Soundtrack
Back to the Future Part III: Original Motion Picture Soundtrack
The Back to the Future Trilogy
Theme park attractions Back to the Future: The Ride

The Back to the Future franchise is an American science fictioncomedy film series written and directed by Robert Zemeckis, produced by Bob Gale and Neil Canton for Steven Spielberg's Amblin Entertainment, and distributed by Universal Pictures. The franchise follows the adventures of a high school student, Marty McFly (Michael J. Fox), and an eccentric scientist, Dr. Emmett L. Brown (Christopher Lloyd), as they use a DeLorean time machine to time travel to different periods in the history of Hill Valley, California.

The first film was the highest-grossing film of 1985 and became an international phenomenon, leading to the second and third films, which were back-to-back film productions, released in 1989 and 1990, respectively. Though the sequels did not perform quite as well at the box office as the first film, the trilogy remains immensely popular after 30 years and has yielded such spinoffs as an animated television series and a motion-simulation ride at the Universal Studios Theme Parks in Universal City, California; Orlando, Florida (now closed); and Osaka, Japan, as well as a Microsoft Windows, Macintosh, iPad, PS3, and Wii video game. The film's visual effects were done by Industrial Light and Magic. The trilogy was nominated for five Academy Awards all together, winning one (Best Sound Editing).


Back to the Future
Directed by Robert Zemeckis
Produced by Bob Gale
Neil Canton
Written by Robert Zemeckis
Bob Gale
Starring Michael J. Fox
Christopher Lloyd
Thomas F. Wilson
Lea Thompson
Music by Alan Silvestri
Cinematography Dean Cundey
Edited by Harry Keramidas
Arthur Schmidt
Distributed by Universal Pictures
Release dates
Running time
337 minutes
Country United States
Language English
Budget $99 million
Box office $975.2 million

Back to the Future (1985)

Main article: Back to the Future

Seventeen-year-old Marty McFly is accidentally sent back in time from 1985 to 1955 in a time machine built from a DeLorean by eccentric scientist Emmett "Doc" Brown, when Marty is attacked by Libyans from whom Doc stole the plutonium that gives the flux capacitor the 1.21 gigawatts it needs to time-travel. Soon after his arrival in 1955, Marty's mother Lorraine falls in love with him, rather than with his father George McFly, threatening to cause a paradox that would result in Marty's nonexistence. Without plutonium to power the time machine, Marty must find the 1955 Doc Brown to help him reunite his parents and return to 1985.

The efforts of Biff Tannen, George's bully and supervisor, further complicate Marty's situation until Marty successfully causes his parents to fall in love and simultaneously convinces George to finally stand up to Biff. Returning to the future via a lightning strike that powers the machine, Marty discovers a vastly improved situation for the McFly family, as a much more confident George has become an accomplished science-fiction novelist, and an apparently-softened Biff is now an auto detailer, rather than George's supervisor. Despite 1955 Doc's insistence on not knowing details of the future, a note Marty leaves in his pocket saves him from being killed by the terrorists. But in the film's final moments, Doc Brown appears in a modified version of the DeLorean and tells Marty and his girlfriend Jennifer Parker that they must travel to the future to fix a problem caused by Marty and Jennifer's kids.

Back to the Future Part II (1989)

The series continues as Doc Brown travels with Marty and Jennifer to the year 2015 where he has discovered Marty's family is in ruins. Shortly after correcting the situation, Marty buys a sports almanac containing the outcomes of 50 years (1950–2000) worth of sporting events to make easy money. However, Doc talks him out of it and throws the almanac in the trash, where the 2015 Biff Tannen finds it. A sleeping Jennifer has been taken by police to her future home, needing Marty and Doc to retrieve her before returning to 1985. While Marty and Doc are at the 2015 McFly home, 2015 Biff steals the DeLorean time machine and gives the book to his 1955 self just before he goes to the dance at the end of the first movie. When Doc and Marty return to 1985, they find that Biff has used the sports almanac's knowledge for financial gain, which allows him to turn Courthouse Square into a 27-story casino, take over Hill Valley, get away with the murder of Marty's father, and later marry Marty's mother. Marty learns that Biff was given the book by 2015 Biff on November 12, 1955, so he and Doc go back to that date in order to steal the almanac from Biff before he can use it to destroy their lives. They accomplish this in a complex fashion, often crossing their own past-selves' paths. When the duo are about to travel back to 1985, a lightning bolt strikes the DeLorean and activates the time circuits, sending Doc back to 1885 and leaving Marty stranded once again in 1955.

Back to the Future Part III (1990)

After finding out that Doc Brown is trapped in 1885, Marty sets out to find the 1955 Doc to help him fix the DeLorean (which has been waiting for him in a mineshaft for 70 years) and restore it to working order. Learning that Doc gets shot in 1885 by Biff's great-grandfather, Buford "Mad Dog" Tannen, Marty travels back in time to save Doc (who has become a blacksmith) and bring him back to the future. Arriving in the middle of a melee between the United States Cavalry and American Indians, an Indian arrow pierces a hole in the DeLorean's fuel line, emptying the gas tank and rendering the engine useless. Doc falls in love with schoolteacher Clara Clayton, and considers staying in the past. Marty must convince Doc to come back with him and find a way to get back to his time before it's too late. After several dramatic action scenes involving using a speeding locomotive to push the DeLorean to 88 miles per hour (142 km/h), Marty returns to 1985 without Doc Brown, who stayed behind with Clara in 1885. When the DeLorean appears in 1985 on the same train track as planned, a modern train destroys the DeLorean, with Marty jumping out just in time. Marty reveals to Jennifer the time travel adventure and they visit the scene of the wreckage of the DeLorean. He worries that Doc has been lost in the past forever, when suddenly Doc Brown appears in a new time machine, modeled after a locomotive. He introduces Jennifer and Marty to Clara (to whom he is now married) and his two sons, Jules and Verne. When Marty asks if Doc and his family are going to the future, Doc replies that he has "already been there". Doc's last words of wisdom is that nobody knows their future, so they "must make it a good one". The locomotive flies across the sky and disappears, ending the trilogy.


Co-writer and director Robert Zemeckis, who has approval over all films in the Back to the Future franchise, has stated that he will block all attempts to remake or reboot the original film. Bob Gale stated that he did not wish to see another film in the series without the Marty McFly character nor any other actor than Michael J. Fox playing him, while acknowledging that Fox's current health condition would make this impossible. He illustrated this at a 2008 fan convention in Florida, stating "The idea of making another Back to the Future movie without Michael J. Fox – you know, that's like saying, 'I'm going to cook you a steak dinner and I'm going to hold the beef".[1] Gale also said that the Telltale adaptation is the closest thing to what a fourth film could be like.[2] In a USA Today interview on October 21, 2015, the day of Marty McFly's purported arrival in the future, Christopher Lloyd stated that he would consider making a fourth film under the condition that the original cast and creative team returned, along with a story "worth telling".[3] The same day, Lloyd once again reprised his role as Doc Brown in a brief segment in which Doc Brown returns to announce a special message explaining the discrepancy between reality and the "future" as depicted in the film.[4]

Cast and crew

Characters and portrayers

Characters Films Ride Animated series Video game (2011)
Back to the Future
Back to the Future
Part II

Back to the Future
Part III

Back to the Future:
The Ride

Back to the Future
Episode 1:
It's About Time
Episode 2:
Get Tannen!
Episode 3:
Citizen Brown
Episode 4:
Double Visions
Episode 5:
Martin Seamus "Marty" McFly Michael J. Fox Michael J. Fox (archive footage) David Kaufman A.J. LoCascio A.J. LoCascio
Michael J. Fox
(future Martys)
Dr. Emmett Lathrop "Doc" Brown Christopher Lloyd Dan Castellaneta
Christopher Lloyd
(live-action segments)
Christopher Lloyd
James Arnold Taylor
Christopher Lloyd
(First Citizen Brown)
Christopher Lloyd
(First Citizen Brown)
James Arnold Taylor
Christopher Lloyd
James Arnold Taylor
Biff Tannen Thomas F. Wilson Kid Beyond
Thomas F. Wilson (2015 re-release)
George Douglas McFly Crispin Glover Jeffrey Weissman
Crispin Glover
(archive footage)
Jeffrey Weissman Michael Sommers
Lorraine Baines-McFly Lea Thompson Aimee Miles
Dave McFly Marc McClure Marc McClure
(Shown in deleted scene)
Marc McClure
Linda McFly Wendie Jo
Wendie Jo
Jennifer Parker Claudia Wells Elisabeth Shue Cathy Cavadini Claudia Wells
Gerald Strickland James Tolkan (photograph) (photograph)
Einstein Tiger Freddie Danny Mann
Goldie Wilson Donald Fullilove
3-D Casey Siemaszko (Silent cameo)
Match Billy Zane (Silent cameo)
Skinhead J.J. Cohen (Silent cameo)
Douglas J. Needles Flea
Marty McFly, Jr. Michael J. Fox
Marlene McFly Michael J. Fox
Griff Thomas F. Wilson Thomas F. Wilson
Buford "Mad Dog" Tannen Thomas F. Wilson
Thomas F. Wilson (Cameo in Season 1 intro)
Seamus McFly Michael J. Fox
Maggie McFly Lea Thompson
William McFly Michael J. Fox
Unnamed child
(infant William)
Michael J. Fox
Clara Clayton Mary Steenburgen (photograph) Mary Steenburgen
Jules Eratosthenes Brown Todd Cameron Brown Joshua Keaton
Verne Newton Brown Dannel Evans Troy Davidson
James Strickland James Tolkan (photograph) (photograph)
Copernicus Foster
Biff Tannen, Jr. Benji Gregory
Beauregard Tannen Thomas F. Wilson (photograph) Owen Thomas
Irving "Kid" Tannen Owen Thomas (photograph) Owen Thomas

Marty McFly and Doc Brown were included in Empire's 100 Greatest Movie Characters of All Time, ranking No. 39 and No. 76 respectively.[5][6]


Film Director Writers Producers Executive producers Associate producer Cinematographer Editors Composer Casting directors Production designers Art directors Set decorators Costume designers
Back to the Future Robert Zemeckis Robert Zemeckis
Bob Gale
Neil Canton
Bob Gale
Steven Spielberg
Kathleen Kennedy
Frank Marshall
N/A Dean Cundey Harry Keramidas
Arthur Schmidt
Alan Silvestri Jane Feinberg
Mike Fenton
Judy Taylor
Lawrence G. Paull Todd Hallowell Hal Gausman Deborah L. Scott
Back to the Future Part II Story:
Robert Zemeckis
Bob Gale
Bob Gale
Steve Starkey Mike Fenton
Valorie Massalas
Judy Taylor
Rick Carter Margie Stone McShirley Linda De Scenna Joanna Johnston
Back to the Future Part III Margie Stone McShirley
Jim Teegarden
Michael Taylor


Box office performance

Film Release date Box office gross Budget Ref(s)
North America Other
Back to the Future July 3, 1985 $210,609,762 $178,444,035 $389,053,797 $19,000,000

[7] [8] [9]

Back to the Future Part II November 22, 1989 $118,450,002 $213,500,000 $331,950,002 $40,000,000 [10][11]
Back to the Future Part III May 25, 1990 $87,727,583 $156,800,000 $244,527,583 $40,000,000 [12]
Back to the Future Day October 21, 2015 $1,650,000 $3,200,000 $4,850,000 [13]
Total $420,087,347 $555,044,035 $975,231,382 $99,000,000
List indicator(s)
  • (A) indicates the adjusted totals based on current ticket prices (by Box Office Mojo).

As of June 2011, the Back to the Future series is the 14th-highest-grossing trilogy of all time at the domestic market (adjusted for inflation),[14] 17th-highest-grossing trilogy of all time at the domestic market (not adjusted for inflation),[15] and the 13th-highest-grossing trilogy of all time, worldwide (not adjusted for inflation).[16]

The trilogy was re-released in certain countries worldwide on October 21, 2015 to commemorate the date travelled to by the protagonists in Back to the Future Part II and generated $4.8 million on its opening day.[17] In the United States and Canada, it earned $1.65 million from ticket sales across 1,815 North American theaters on its opening day.[17][18] Germany opened with $1.4 million and the United Kingdom with $345,000. Revenues from other territories such as Australia, Austria, France, Italy were moderate.[17]

Critical and public response

Film Rotten Tomatoes Metacritic CinemaScore
Critics Top Critics Audience
Back to the Future 96% (77 reviews)[19] 88% (16 reviews) 94% (1 090 883 votes) 86 (12 reviews)[20] N/A
Back to the Future Part II 63% (60 reviews)[21] 50% (14 reviews) 85% (748 434 votes) 57 (17 reviews)[22] A-[23]
Back to the Future Part III 74% (43 reviews)[24] 50% (10 reviews) 78% (693 139 votes) 55 (19 reviews)[25] A-[23]
Average 78% 63% 86% 66 A-

Soundtrack albums

In 1985, MCA Records released the Back to the Future soundtrack. It featured 8 tracks performed by Huey Lewis and the News, Lindsey Buckingham, Eric Clapton, Marvin Berry and the Starlighters, and Etta James. Only two tracks were culled from Alan Silvestri's orchestral score.

In 1989, MCA Records released Back to the Future Part II soundtrack with 13 tracks.

In 1990, Varèse Sarabande released Back to the Future Part III soundtrack with 18 tracks.

In 1999, Varèse Sarabande released Back to the Future trilogy soundtrack with eight tracks from the first film, seven from the second, four from the third, and one from the ride.

In 2009, Intrada released a two-CD Back to the Future set as Intrada Special Collection Volume 116. It features the complete original motion picture soundtrack (that is, Alan Silvestri's entire orchestral score) from Back to the Future (Part I) with 24 tracks, 15 tracks of alternate early sessions and one unused source cue from the scoring sessions.

Video releases

2002 DVD release: "The Complete Trilogy"

In July 1997, Universal Studios announced that Back to the Future would be one of their first ten releases to the new format, though it ended up being delayed for five years. The films were finally released in 3-disc DVD box set on December 17, 2002 in both widescreen and fullscreen. [26] The release also marked the final time the films were reissued on VHS.

2009 DVD reissue

On October 21, 2008, broke the story that Universal will be releasing each of the Back to the Future films individually. The DVDs were released on February 10, 2009 with the first film being a 2-disc set featuring the documentary Looking Back to the Future and Back to the Future: The Ride.[27]

2010 Blu-ray release: "25th Anniversary Trilogy"

In June 2008, a special screening of the trilogy was held in Celebration, Florida. Bob Gale told the crowd they were seeing the digitally remastered version that was going to be used for the Blu-ray version of the movies. Gale also spoke to potential supplemental features on a Blu-ray version of the trilogy, saying only that never-before-seen bonus materials may appear, though he stopped short of offering any specifics.[28] On June 28, 2010, Universal announced that the Blu-ray edition of the films would be released on October 26, 2010, twenty-five years to the day from the date of the fictional events from the first film.[29] There have been numerous complaints about the R1 packaging,[30] leading to the release of an instruction sheet on how to safely remove and insert discs.[31]

Release formats and features

Name Box Audio Scene-specific commentary Framing Enhanced MJ Fox interview
1986 (Part I) CED Tan with Marty and DeLorean Stereo No ? No
1986 (Part I) VHS Blue with Marty and DeLorean Stereo No Correct Widescreen No
1993 Japanese Laserdisc Charcoal with logo Stereo No Generous No
VCD Blue with Marty and DeLorean Stereo No Correct Widescreen No
2002 R1 DVD Blue with Marty and Doc with DeLorean Dolby 5.1 Yes Incorrect Widescreen Yes
2002 R2/R4 UK DVD Black with DeLorean Dolby 5.1 and DTS No Incorrect Widescreen No
2003 "V2" (Part II & Part III) DVD No box Dolby 5.1 Yes Corrected Widescreen Yes
2005 R1 DVD Blue with Marty and Doc Dolby 5.1 Yes Corrected Widescreen Yes
2005 R2/R4 UK DVD Blue with DeLorean Dolby 5.1 and DTS Yes Corrected Widescreen Yes
2006 R2 UK DVD Blue with DeLorean Dolby 5.1 and DTS Yes Corrected Widescreen Yes
2008 R2 UK DVD Black Steelbook Case with DeLorean Dolby 5.1 and DTS Yes Corrected Widescreen Yes
2009 R1 Individual DVDs BTTF: Marty with DeLorean
BTTF II: Marty and Doc with DeLorean
BTTF III: Marty, Doc, and Clara with DeLorean
Dolby 5.1 Yes Corrected Widescreen Yes
2010 25th Anniversary R1 Blu-ray/Digital copy Blue with Marty and Doc with DeLorean DTS-HD 5.1 Yes Corrected Widescreen (squished credits on Part I) Yes
2010 R2 Blu-ray Blue with Marty with DeLorean DTS-HD 5.1 Yes Corrected Widescreen ?
2010 Limited Edition Collector's Tin R2 Blu-ray Tin blue with Marty with DeLorean DTS-HD 5.1 Yes Corrected Widescreen ?
2010 25th Anniversary R2 DVD Blue with Marty with DeLorean Dolby 5.1 Yes Corrected Widescreen Yes
2015 30th Anniversary Blu-ray and DVD Flux Capacitor Dolby 5.1 Yes Corrected Widescreen (squished credits on Part I) Yes

The footage that was shot with Eric Stoltz in the role of Marty McFly before he was replaced with Michael J. Fox was not included in Universal's original DVD release in 2002 or in 2009, despite many fans hoping that Universal would include it. Some very brief footage was released in the Blu-ray version in 2010.

Other media

Television series

An animated television series, Back to the Future: The Animated series, lasted two seasons, each featuring 13 episodes, and ran on CBS from September 14, 1991 to December 26, 1992.

Comic books

A comic book series was published by Harvey Comics in 1992 detailing further adventures of the animated series. Only seven issues were produced. IDW is publishing a mini series which presents the first meeting of both Marty and Doc Brown and is written by co-screenwriter Bob Gale, which was released in stores on October 21, 2015, the same date that Marty travels with Doc Brown to the future depicted in the story line for Part II.


Each film in the trilogy also received a novelization that expanded on the movies by adding scenes, characters and dialog, often culled from early-draft scripts.

In 2012, Hasslein Books released A Matter of Time: The Unauthorized Back to the Future Lexicon, written by Rich Handley.[32] The book was released in cooperation with, the official Back to the Future Web site.[33] A second volume, Back in Time: The Unauthorized Back to the Future Chronology, by Greg Mitchell and Rich Handley, was released in 2013.[34]


Various video games based on the Back to the Future movies have been released over the years for home video game systems, including the Atari ST, ZX Spectrum, Commodore 64, Master System, Genesis, Nintendo Entertainment System, and Super Famicom platforms. Additionally the game trilogy has also been released for Windows (PC), for Apple (MAC) and for Apple (iPad).[35]

The 2015 video game Lego Dimensions features Marty and Doc in separate packs. Michael J. Fox and Christopher Lloyd reprised their roles of Marty and Doc, respectively. Marty's pack has the DeLorean and Hoverboard, while Doc's pack includes the train in Part III[36]

Stage musical

On 31 January 2014, it was announced that a stage musical adaptation of the first film is in production.[37] The show, which will be co-written by original writers Robert Zemeckis and Bob Gale, was expected to premiere in 2015 but got pushed to 2016. According to Gale, the musical will be "true to the spirit of the film without being a slavish remake". The musical is part of the 30th anniversary of the original film.

Keith Lemon

A Keith Lemon episode called "Keith Lemon's Back t'Future Tribute" was ordered for ITV2 by ITV's Director of Digital Platforms, Angela Jain and was commissioned by the commissioning editor for comedy and entertainment, Claire Zolkwer. It was produced for ITV2 by Talkback and executive produced by Leon Wilson. The series producer was Arron Ferster and the director was Andrew Chaplin.[38]

Automotive commercials

In 2015, Fox and Lloyd starred alongside popular YouTube science personality Go Tech Yourself in an extended Toyota commercial for Toyota's new fuel cell vehicle, the Mirai, entitled Fueled by the Future. The commercial doubled as a tribute to the franchise and illustrated how the idea of converting trash into fuel had become reality. The commercial was released on October 21 — the same date that Marty, Doc and Jennifer traveled to in Back to the Future Part II.[39]

Theme park ride

Back to the Future: The Ride is a simulator ride based on and inspired by the Back to the Future films and is a mini-sequel to 1990's Back to the Future Part III. The original attraction opened on May 2, 1991, at Universal Studios Florida. It also opened on June 2, 1993 at Universal Studios Hollywood and on March 31, 2001 at Universal Studios Japan. The rides in the United States have since been replaced by The Simpsons Ride. The ride in Japan remains operational until May 31, 2016.

Back in Time

In the fall of 2015, a Kickstarter project released the Back in Time documentary film.[40][41] The film features interviews with the members of the cast and crew along with the cultural impact of the trilogy 30 years later.

Back to the Future Day

The replica Toyota Tacoma concept based on the original Toyota truck, on display during the Pittsburgh International Auto Show at the David L. Lawrence Convention Center in 2016.

October 21, 2015, the date used for the setting of the future events during the first act of the second film, has been called "Back to the Future Day" by the media.[42][43][44][45][46] The year 2015 also commemorated the 30th anniversary of the release of the original film.

Many promotions were planned to mark the passing of the date, with many playing to the depiction of the future in the film, including:

Cast members appeared on Today and Jimmy Kimmel Live! on October 21, 2015.[62][63] Nearly 2,000 theaters worldwide showed back-to-back screenings of the Back to the Future trilogy on October 21 and continuing through that weekend, which earned over $4.8M in single day ticket sales.[64] Universal studios offered location tours of the various filming locations around the date.[65][66] The town of Reston, Virginia, temporarily changed its name to "Hill Valley" to commemorate the series during its annual film festival.[42][67] Esquire Network aired the trilogy all day that day, plus all weekend.


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