Anti-abortion violence

Anti-abortion violence is violence committed against individuals and organizations that provide abortion. Incidents of violence have included destruction of property, in the form of vandalism; crimes against people, including kidnapping, stalking, assault, attempted murder, and murder; and crimes affecting both people and property, including arson and bombings.

Anti-abortion extremists are considered a current domestic terrorist threat by the US Department of Justice. Most documented incidents have occurred in the United States, though they have also occurred in Australia, Canada, and New Zealand. G. Davidson Smith of Canadian Security Intelligence Service defined anti-abortion violence as "single issue terrorism". A study of 198287 violence considered the incidents "limited political" or "subrevolutionary" terrorism.[1]


Anti-abortion violence is specifically directed towards people who or places which provide abortion.[2] It is known as "single issue terrorism".[3] Extreme forms are recognized as terrorism. Incidents include vandalism, arson, and bombings of abortion clinics, such as those committed by Eric Rudolph (199698), and murders or attempted murders of physicians and clinic staff, as committed by James Kopp (1998), Paul Jennings Hill (1994), Scott Roeder (2009), Michael F. Griffin (1993), and Peter James Knight (2001).

Those who engage in or support such actions defend the use of force with claims of justifiable homicide or defense of others in the interest of protecting the life of the fetus.[4][5] David C. Nice, of the University of Georgia, describes support for anti-abortion violence as a political weapon against women's rights, one that is associated with tolerance for violence toward women.[6] Numerous organizations have also recognized anti-abortion extremism as a form of Christian terrorism.[7]

At least eleven murders occurred in the United States since 1990, as well as 41 bombings and 173 arsons at clinics since 1977. At least one murder occurred in Australia, as well several attempted murders in Canada. There were 1,793 abortion providers in the United States in 2008,[8] as well as 197 abortion providers in Canada in 2001.[9] The National Abortion Federation reported between 1,356 and 13,415 incidents of picketing at United States providers each year from 1995 to 2014.[10]

The Federal Freedom of Access to Clinic Entrances Act was passed in 1994 to protect reproductive health service facilities and their staff and patients from violent threats, assault, vandalism, and blockade. The law (18 U.S.C. sec. 248) also provides the same level of legal protection to all pregnancy-related medical clinics, including pro-life counseling centers; it also applies to use of threatening tactics directed towards churches and places of worship.[11] State, provincial, and local governments have also passed similar laws designed to afford legal protection of access to abortion in the United States and Canada.

By country

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United States


In the United States, violence directed towards abortion providers has killed at least eleven people, including four doctors, two clinic employees, a security guard, a police officer, two people (unclear of their connection), and a clinic escort;[I 1][I 2] Seven murders occurred in the 1990s.[I 3]

Attempted murder, assault, and kidnapping

According to statistics gathered by the National Abortion Federation (NAF), an organization of abortion providers, since 1977 in the United States and Canada, there have been 17 attempted murders, 383 death threats, 153 incidents of assault or battery, 13 wounded,[12] 100 butyric acid attacks, 373 physical invasions, 41 bombings, 655 anthrax threats,[13] and 3 kidnappings committed against abortion providers.[I 15] Between 1997 and 1990 77 death threats were made with 250 made between 1991 and 1999 .[12] Attempted murders in the U.S. included:[I 1][I 16][I 17] IN 1985 45% of clinics reported bomb threats, decreasing to 15% in 2000. One fifth of clinics in 2000 experienced some form of extreme activity. [14]

Arson, bombing, and property crime

According to NAF, since 1977 in the United States and Canada, property crimes committed against abortion providers have included 41 bombings, 173 arsons, 91 attempted bombings or arsons, 619 bomb threats, 1630 incidents of trespassing, 1264 incidents of vandalism, and 100 attacks with butyric acid ("stink bombs").[I 15] The New York Times also cites over one hundred clinic bombings and incidents of arson, over three hundred invasions, and over four hundred incidents of vandalism between 1978 and 1993.[I 21] The first clinic arson occurred in Oregon in March 1976 and the first bombing occurred in February 1978 in Ohio.[I 22] Incidents have included:

Anthrax threats

The first hoax letters claiming to contain anthrax were mailed to U.S. clinics in October 1998, a few days after the Slepian shooting; since then, there have been 655 such bioterror threats made against abortion providers. None of the "anthrax" in these cases was real.[I 16][I 54]



Attempted murder

Violence has also occurred in Canada, where at least three doctors have been attacked to date. The physicians were part of a pattern of attacks, which targeted providers in Canada and upstate New York (including the fatal shooting of Dr. Barnett Slepian of New York). All victims were shot, or shot at, in their homes with a rifle, at dusk or in the morning, in late October or early November over a multi-year period. There is speculation that the timing of the shootings is related to the Canadian observance of Remembrance Day.

A joint Canadian-F.B.I. task force investigating the shootings was formed in December 1997—three years after the first attack. A task force coordinator, Inspector David Bowen of the Hamilton-Wentworth Regional Police, complained that the Canadian Government was not adequately financing the investigation. Inspector Bowen said the task force, largely financed by the communities where the shootings occurred, has "operated on a shoestring" with a budget of $100,000. He said he requested more funds in July that would raise its budget to $250,000. Federal officials rejected the request on October 15, a week before Dr. Slepian was killed. Inspector Bowen said that there hadn't been funding to follow up potential leads.[I 59]

In 2001, James Kopp, an American citizen and resident was charged with the murder of Dr. Slepian and the attempted murder of Dr. Short; some speculate that Kopp was responsible for the other shootings.[I 16][I 17]

Bombing and property damage

New Zealand

In 1976 an arson attack was carried out at the Auckland Medical Aid Centre, which was estimated to cause $100,000 in damages to the facility. The Auckland office of the Sisters Overseas Service organisation was targeted that same evening.[18]

Specific incidents

Army of God

Main article: Army of God

According to the Department of Justice and Department of Homeland Security's joint Terrorism Knowledge Base, the Army of God is an underground terrorist organization active in the United States formed in 1982, which has been responsible for a substantial amount of anti-abortion violence. In addition to numerous property crimes, the group has committed acts of kidnapping, attempted murder, and murder. While sharing a common ideology and tactics, members claim to rarely communicate;[19] the organization forbids those who wish to "take action against baby killing abortionists" from discussing their plans with anyone in advance.[20]

In August 1982, three men identifying as the Army of God kidnapped Hector Zevallos (a doctor and clinic owner) and his wife, Rosalee Jean, holding them for eight days.[15] In 1993, Shelly Shannon, a very active member of the Army of God, was found guilty of the attempted murder of Dr. George Tiller.[21] That same year, law enforcement officials found the Army of God Manual, a tactical guide to arson, chemical attacks, invasions, and bombings buried in Shelly Shannon's backyard.[15] Paul Jennings Hill was found guilty of the murder of both Dr. John Britton and clinic escort James Barrett.

The Army of God published a "Defensive Action Statement" signed by more than two dozen supporters of Hill, saying that "whatever force is legitimate to defend the life of a born child is legitimate to defend the life of an unborn child... if in fact Paul Hill did kill or wound abortionist John Britton and clinic assistants James Barrett and Mrs. Barrett, his actions are morally justified if they were necessary for the purpose of defending innocent human life".[20][22] The AOG claimed responsibility for Eric Robert Rudolph's 1997 shrapnel bombing of abortion clinics in Atlanta and Birmingham.[23] The organization embraces its description as terrorist.[24]

Physician "wanted" posters

In the late 1990s, an organization called American Coalition of Life Activists (ACLA) was accused of implicitly advocating violence by its publication on its "Nuremberg Files" website of wanted-style posters, which featured a photograph of a physician who performed abortions along with a monetary reward for any information that would lead to his "arrest, conviction, and revocation of license to practice medicine".[25] The ACLA's website described these physicians as war criminals[26] and accused them of committing "crimes against humanity". The web site also published names, home addresses, telephone numbers, and other personal information regarding abortion providers—highlighting the names of those who had been wounded and striking out those of who had been killed. Dr. George Tiller's name was included on this list along with many others. The site was accused of being a thinly-veiled hit list intended to incite violence; others claimed that it was protected under the First Amendment of the United States Constitution.[27] In 2002, after a prolonged debate, the 9th Circuit Court of Appeals ruled that the "posters" constituted an illegal threat.[28]


Anti-abortion reactions

The American Life League issued a "Pro-life Proclamation Against Violence" in 2006.[29] Other anti-abortion groups to state their opposition to violence include the Center for Bio-Ethical Reform and Pro-Lifers Against Clinic Violence. The anti-abortion organization National Coalition for Life and Peace has also issued a statement rejecting violence as a form of opposition to abortion.[30]

Many anti-abortion organizations—including Family Research Council, Americans United for Life, Concerned Women for America, Susan B. Anthony List, American Life League, Students for Life of America, Pro-Life Action League and 40 Days For Life—issued statements condemning the 2009 murder of Kansas late-term abortion doctor George Tiller.[31][32]

In a 2009 press release, Operation Rescue founder Randall Terry issued a statement calling for peaceful protests to expose abortionists. According to Media Matters and the Colorado Independent, however, Terry has also lead apparently contradictory public prayers that an abortion provider would "[convert] to God" or that "calamity [would] strike him".[33][34] Terry added that he hoped the "baby killer would be tried and executed for crimes against humanity".[34] The doctor targeted by Terry's prayers said to the press, "He's clearly inciting someone, anyone, to kill me."; a spokesman responded that Terry only meant that "God would deal the [the doctor]".[34]

The Rev. Flip Benham, director of Operation Rescue, accused "those in the abortion-providing industry" of committing most of the violence in an attempt to discredit the antiabortion movement. He defended his organization's use of inflammatory rhetoric, saying: "This whole thing isn't about violence. It's all about silence – silencing the Christian message. That's what they want." He also stated, "Our inflammatory rhetoric is only revealing a far more inflammatory truth."[35]

Abortion rights supporters' reactions

Organizations that support abortion rights have responded to anti-abortion violence by lobbying to protect access to abortion clinics. The National Abortion Federation and the Feminist Majority Foundation collect statistics on incidents of anti-abortion violence.

Media depictions of anti-abortion violence


See also



  1. Wilson, Michele; Lynxwiler, John (1988). "Abortion clinic violence as terrorism". Studies in Conflict & Terrorism. 11 (4): 263–273. doi:10.1080/10576108808435717.
  2. Jelen, Ted G (1998). "Abortion". Encyclopedia of Religion and Society. Walnut Creek, California: AltaMira Press.
  3. Smith, G. Davidson (Tim) (1998). "Single Issue Terrorism Commentary". Canadian Security Intelligence Service. Archived from the original on July 14, 2006. Retrieved June 9, 2006.
  4. O'Keefe, Mark (January 24, 1999). "Anarchy in the name of God". The Oregonian.
  5. "Domestic Terrorism". December 8, 2014. Retrieved June 28, 2015.
  6. Nice, David C. (February 1988). "Abortion Clinic Bombings as Political Violence". American Journal of Political Science. 32 (1): 178–195. doi:10.2307/2111316. JSTOR 2111316.
  7. Jones RK, Kooistra K (March 2011). "Abortion Incidence and Access to Services In the United States, 2008" (PDF). Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health. 43 (1): 41–50. doi:10.1363/4304111. PMID 21388504.
  8. Eggertson L (March 2001). "Abortion services in Canada: a patchwork quilt with many holes". Canadian Medical Association Journal. 164 (6): 847–9. PMC 80888Freely accessible. PMID 11276554.
  9. "NAF Violence and Disruption Statistics: Incidents of Violence & Disruption Against Abortion Providers" (PDF). National Abortion Federation. c. 2014. Retrieved September 21, 2015.
  10. Eckenwiler, Mark (April 18, 1995). "Freedom of Access to Clinic Entrances Act (FACE) FAQ". Retrieved February 10, 2007.
  11. 1 2 Doan 2007, p. 23.
  12. Doan 2007, p. 110.
  13. Doan 2007, p. 113.
  14. 1 2 3 Baird-Windle, Patricia & Bader, Eleanor J., (2001), Targets of Hatred: Anti-Abortion Terrorism, New York, St. Martin's Press, ISBN 978-0-312-23925-1
  15. Turner, Winford (February 9, 1985). "Jurors convict Markley". TimesDaily (116—40). pp. 1, 3. Retrieved December 11, 2015.
  16. Frammolino, Ralph (May 6, 1988). "2 Get Prison for Trying to Bomb Abortion Clinic". Los Angeles Times.
  18. "Terrorist Organization Profile:Army of God". Terrorism Knowledge Base. 2004–2008. Retrieved September 24, 2015.
  19. 1 2 Jefferis, Jennifer (2011). Armed for Life: The Army of God and Anti-Abortion Terror in the United States. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO.
  20. Warner, Bill (May 31, 2009). "Bill Warner Private Investigator Sarasota Fl to Panama City, Male & Female Detectives Dr. George Tiller Murdered by Army of God (AOG) Member, Shooting Suspect Scott P. Roeder Identified By Sheriff, AOG Alive And Well in Wichita Kansas. Bill Warner Private Investigator". Retrieved November 22, 2009.
  21. Robinson, B.A., Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance (November 9, 2004), "Violence & Harassment at U.S. Abortion Clinics". Retrieved April 13, 2006.
  22. "Army of God letters claim responsibility for clinic bombing". CNN. February 2, 1998.
  23. Jefferis, Jennifer (2011). Armed for Life: The Army of God and Anti-Abortion Terror in the United States. ABC-CLIO. p. 40.
  24. Eviatar, Daphne (June 3, 2009). "Little-Enforced Law Opens Window for Suits Against Extremist Groups". Washington Independent. Retrieved November 23, 2009.
  25. Volokh, Eugene (April 3, 2001). "Menacing Speech, Today and During the Civil Rights Movement". Retrieved November 23, 2009.
  26. Clarkson, Frederick (May 31, 2001). "Journalists or terrorists?". Retrieved April 13, 2006.
  27. Roberts, Joel (May 16, 2002). "Anti-Abortion Activists Lose In Court". CBS News.
  28. "Pro-life proclamation against violence". American Life League. Retrieved April 13, 2006.
  29. "National Coalition for Life and Peace Condemns Abortion Facility Bombing".
  30. "Pro-life Leaders Respond to Tiller Shooting". Retrieved June 28, 2015.
  31. "The Shooting of George Tiller: Pro-lifers fear that the shooting death of the late-term abortionist may bring greater restrictions to their largely peaceful movement". National Catholic Register. Retrieved January 27, 2012.
  32. "Randall Terry: "George Tiller was a mass-murderer. We grieve for him that he did not have time to properly prepare his soul to face God." (Randall Terry Press Release, with editorial response)". Media Matters. May 31, 2009. Retrieved September 25, 2015.
  33. 1 2 3 Ernest Luning (May 31, 2009). "Attorney general directs U.S. marshals to protect abortion clinics, providers". The Colorado Independent. Retrieved October 15, 2010.
  34. "Clinic Killings Follow Years of Antiabortion Violence". January 17, 1995. Retrieved November 16, 2011.
  35. "TC Boyle Resource Center". Retrieved October 17, 2015.
  36. "Hammered". IMDB.
  37. Encyclopedia of Contemporary Christian Music; Powell; p931; Hendrickson Publishers; paperback edition (August 2002)

List of incidents by country

  1. 1 2 "Clinic violence and intimidation" (PDF). NARAL Pro-Choice America Foundation. 2006. Archived (PDF) from the original on February 11, 2010. Retrieved February 9, 2010..
  2. Another abortion doctor, George Wayne Patterson, was shot and killed outside an adult movie theater in Mobile, Alabama on August 21, 1993, but authorities attribute his death to a botched robbery."Man Arrested in Killing of Mobile Abortion Doctor". The New York Times. September 5, 1993.; H. Kushner, Encyclopedia of Terrorism, Sage Publications, 2003, p.39
  3. Alesha E. Doan (2007). Opposition and Intimidation:The abortion wars and strategies of political harassment. University of Michigan. p. 23.
  4. Rimer, Sara. "The Clinic Gunman and the Victim". Retrieved June 13, 2014.
  5. 1 2 Man arrested, charged in Fla. abortion clinic fire
  6. 1 2 David Mattingly; Henry Schuster; Matt Smith (July 19, 2005). "Rudolph gets life for Birmingham clinic attack". CNN.
  7. David Staba (January 13, 2007). "Doctor's Killer Tries to Make Abortion the Issue". The New York Times.
  8. Joe Rodriguez; Tim Potter; Stan Finger (June 1, 2009). "Suspect in shooting death of abortion provider George Tiller may be charged today". The Wichita Eagle. Archived from the original on June 6, 2009. Retrieved October 15, 2010.
  9. Fauset, Richard (December 1, 2015). "For Robert Dear, Religion and Rage Before Planned Parenthood Attack". The New York Times. The New York Times. Retrieved December 1, 2015.
  10. 1 2 Tribune Wire Report (November 29, 2015). "'No more baby parts': Reclusive suspect's words draw focus". The Hartford Courant. Retrieved November 29, 2015.
  11. 1 2 Tribune Wire Report (November 29, 2015). "What's known about suspect in Planned Parenthood shooting". The Hartford Courant. Retrieved November 29, 2015.
  12. 1 2 Conlon,Kevin; Botelho, Greg; Brown, Pamela (November 29, 2015). "Source: Suspect spoke of 'baby parts' after Planned Parenthood shooting". CNN. Retrieved December 1, 2015.
  13. Gurman, Sadie (December 9, 2015). "Planned Parenthood suspect: 'I am a warrior for the babies'". Yahoo News. Associated Press. Retrieved January 18, 2016.
  14. Hughes, Trevor (May 11, 2016). "Planned Parenthood shooting suspect found incompetent to stand trial". USA Today. Retrieved May 11, 2016.
  15. 1 2 National Abortion Federation (2009), "Incidence of Violence & Disruption Against Abortion Providers in the U.S. & Canada". Retrieved February 9, 2010.
  16. 1 2 3 Robinson, B.A., Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance (November 9, 2004), "Violence & Harassment at U.S. Abortion Clinics". Retrieved April 13, 2006.
  17. 1 2 National Abortion Federation (2006), "Clinic Violence: History of Violence". Retrieved April 13, 2006.
  18. "Priest convicted on assault charges". The Tuscaloosa News. July 11, 1984.
  19. 1 2 Blanchard, Dallas (1993). Religious Violence and Abortion: The Gideon Project. Gainesville, Florida: the University Press of Florida. pp. 191–193. ISBN 0-8130-1194-9.
  20. "Abortion politics meet law enforcement". WorldNetDaily. Retrieved June 1, 2009.
  21. "The Death of Dr. Gunn". The New York Times. March 12, 1993.
  22. National Abortion Federation. (2007). "Arsons and Bombings Archived September 26, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.." Retrieved February 10, 2007.
  23. Blanchard, Dallas (1993). Religious Violence and Abortion. Gainesville, Florida: University Press of Florida. p. 190. ISBN 0-8130-1194-9.
  24. Triggle, Nick (June 1, 2009) "Anti-abortion and violence in the US" BBC News
  25. Churchville, Victoria (January 6, 1985) "Bomb Suspects Cite Religious Motive" The Washington Post p. A-16
  26. See also: Christmas abortion bombings at Pensacola wiki
  27. "Arson suspected in abortion clinic fire". Amarillo Globe-News. Associated Press. May 30, 2000.
  28. "- History". Blue Mountain Clinic. Retrieved June 28, 2015.
  29. "A choice alternative". Missoula News. Retrieved June 28, 2015.
  30. Blue Mountain Clinic Aftermath. YouTube. October 25, 2013. Retrieved June 28, 2015.
  31. "Arson suspected in abortion clinic fire". Amarillo Globe-News. Associated Press. May 30, 2000.
  32. "3 injured in Fla. abortion clinic vandalism; FBI launches probe", The Baltimore Sun, May 22, 1998
  33. 1 2 3 "History of Violence/Extreme Violence". National Abortion Federation.
  34. Daley, B.(2000, May 30). The Boston Globe. "Abortion Clinic Fire 'Suspicious': Women's Health Center Has Been Target Of Past Protests, Vandalism" Lexis Nexis Academic Universe. Retrieved March 26, 2009.
  35. "National News Briefs; Fire at Abortion Clinic Is Investigated as Arson". The New York Times. May 30, 2000.
  36. "N.h. Abortion Clinic Fire May Have Been An Arson". Orlando Sentinel. May 30, 2000.
  37. "Arson suspected in abortion clinic fire". Amarillo Globe-News. Associated Press. May 30, 2000.
  38. "Axe-wielding priest attacks abortion clinic". CNN. September 30, 2000. Archived from the original on October 19, 2012. Retrieved August 23, 2016.
  39. "Blast Damages Clinic Used for Abortions". The New York Times. June 12, 2001. Retrieved October 13, 2011.
  40. "Louisiana Clinic Bomber Pleads Guilty". Ms. July 13, 2006. Retrieved March 26, 2009.
  41. "Man Crashes Into Davenport Health Clinic". Davenport, IA: KWQC-TV. September 13, 2006. Retrieved May 11, 2008.
  42. Fletcher, Dan. "Top 10 Inept Terrorist Plots" Time 2009-09-08. Retrieved June 21, 2011.
  43. "Fall 2007 Anti-Abortion Violence Intelligence Report:". 2007. Retrieved March 26, 2009..
  44. "Planned Parenthood Arson". WKTR. May 12, 2007. Retrieved May 14, 2007.
  45. "Suspects In Abortion Clinic Fire Plead Not Guilty". Albuquerque: KOAT-TV. December 27, 2007. Archived from the original on July 13, 2011. Retrieved March 26, 2009..
  46. "New Mexico: Did You Know?". NARAL Pro-Choice America. Archived from the original on June 22, 2011. Retrieved June 21, 2011.
  47. Anthony Lonetree (January 23, 2009). "Man charged with driving into Planned Parenthood facility". Star Tribune. Retrieved October 15, 2010.
  48. "Man charged with driving into Planned Parenthood facility". Minneapolis Star-Tribune. January 23, 2009. Retrieved January 27, 2009.
  49. Nelson, Melissa (January 6, 2012). "Man arrested, charged in Fla. abortion clinic fire". Yahoo! Finance. Associated Press.
  50. Police: Man damaged Bloomington Planned Parenthood building, cited religious beliefs
  51. "Planned Parenthood fire determined to be arson - - Sept. 4, 2015".
  52. "Planned Parenthood office in Claremont heavily damaged by intruder". WMUR. October 21, 2015.
  53. "Hatchet-wielding minor arrested in second attack on NH Planned Parenthood clinic this month".
  54. "Anthrax Attacks". National Abortion Federation (2007). Retrieved February 10, 2007.
  55. Paul Anderson (March 11, 2014). "Deluded pro-life crusader Peter James Knight kills guard, but wanted more dead after he brought his gun and hatred to an abortion clinic in Melbourne". Herald Sun.
  56. Jamie Berry (November 20, 2002). "'Remorseless' recluse gets life". The Age.
  57. "Australian abortion clinic guard killed". BBC News. July 16, 2001. Retrieved April 13, 2006.
  58. "Arsonists attack mosman park clinic". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. July 16, 2001. Retrieved April 13, 2006..
  59. 1 2 3 4 Rhode, David. Sniper attacks on doctors create climate of fear in Canada, New York Times, October 29, 1998. Retrieved August 29, 2011.
  60. Romalis, Garson. Garson Romalis: Why I am an abortion doctor
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  64. 1 2 Bagley, Gordon. Bombing of Toronto abortion clinic raises stakes in bitter debate. Canadian Medical Association Journal, Volume 147, p. 1528. 1992
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Media depictions

  1. Braille Library. (September 1999). Narrated by David Hartley Margolin. Retrieved February 10, 2007.
  2. Gideon's Torch. Retrieved June 28, 2015.
  3. Bennett, Lisa (October 27, 2009). "Law & Order Dis-Honors Dr. Tiller with Portrayal of Abortion Provider as Murderer". Media Hall of Shame. National Organization for Women. Retrieved April 13, 2011.
  4. "Law & Order's" Wholly Unexpected Treatment of Abortion Is Must-Watch Television
  5. Barrett-Ibarra, Sofia. "Why Is Pennsatucky In Jail? The 'Orange Is The New Black' Prisoner Has A History Of Violence". Bustle. Retrieved July 26, 2015.
  6. Manson, Marilyn (May 28, 1999), "Columbine: Whose Fault Is It?", Rolling Stone. Retrieved February 10, 2007.
  7. Goldberg, Michelle (November 17, 1999), "Sharps & Flats", Retrieved February 10, 2007.

External links

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