Aircraft in fiction
Aircraft in fiction covers the various real-world aircraft that have made significant appearances in fiction over the decades, including in books, films, toys, TV programs, video games, and other media. These appearances spotlight the popularity of different models of aircraft, and showcase the different types for the general public.
The first aviation film was the 1911 William J. Humphrey–directed two-reeler, The Military Air-Scout, shot following an Aero Club of America flying meet at Long Island, New York, with Lt. Henry Arnold doing the stunt flying. "Arnold, who picked up 'a few extra bucks' for his services, became so excited about movies that he almost quit the Army to become an actor."
The years between World War I and World War II saw extensive use of the new technology, aircraft, in the new medium, film. In the early 1920s Hollywood studios made dozens of now-obscure "aerial Westerns" with leads such as Tom Mix and Hoot Gibson, where the role of the horse was taken by aircraft, or used aircraft as nothing more than vehicles for stunts to excite audiences. In 1926 the first "proper" aviation film was made; Wings is a story of two pilots who sign up to fly and fight in World War I. Made with the co-operation of the United States' then-Department of War (a relationship that continues to this day), it used front-line military aircraft of the day such as the Thomas-Morse MB-3 and Boeing PW-9, flown by military pilots. Future U.S. Air Force Generals Hap Arnold and Hoyt Vandenberg were among the military officers involved with the production, Arnold as a technical consultant and Vandenberg as one of the pilots. Wings was a box-office hit when it achieved general release in 1929 and went on to win the award for Best Production at the first Academy Awards.
In Fascist Italy in the 1930s, aviation-themed films were used as propaganda tools to complement the massed flights led by Italo Balbo in promoting the regime domestically and abroad. One such film was the most successful Italian film of the pre-World War II era; Luciano Serra pilota (Luciano Serra, Pilot) was inextricably linked to the Fascist government via Mussolini's son Vittorio, who was the driving force behind the film's production. The film, set between 1921 and the Italo-Abyssinian War, was used to compare the allegedly moribund state of aviation in pre-Fascist Italy with the purported power of the Regia Aeronautica and Italian aviation in general in the 1930s. However, by the time that Luciano Serra pilota was shown at the 1938 Venice Film Festival, the link between aviation and Fascism had already been firmly established in the minds of the Italian people through widespread depictions of aircraft in a variety of media. For example, there was an entire branch of the Futurist Art movement devoted to aviation, known as Aeropittura ("Aeropainting"). While many of the Aeropittura works were devoted to flight rather than aircraft per se, some did celebrate Italian aviation exploits, such as Alfredo Ambrosi's Il volo su Vienna (The Flight over Vienna) which depicted in Futurist style the World War I exploit of Gabriele d'Annunzio; although the city of Vienna is shown in abstract in accordance with the aims of Aeropittura – namely to show the dynamism and excitement of flight – the Ansaldo SVA aircraft are very carefully and accurately rendered.
In the United States the use or denial of use of current military aircraft in films is determined by the U.S. military itself. The armed services review all requests for the use of aircraft, by examining the scripts to ensure that aircraft will only be used in films that show the U.S. military in a positive light. Because alternatives to using real military aircraft can be expensive, this means that films that don't get U.S. military approval often do not get financed or made. Sean McElwee, writing for Salon.com concluded of this problem, "This is a prima facie case for de facto censorship...If the government wants to allow its equipment to be used by studios, it needs to grant access to anyone who wants to use it – that is the meaning of pluralism. The Pentagon fears that some of the movies may hurt the military's reputation and recruiting efforts. These concerns are legitimate, but it's more important that we allow John Stuart Mill's "market place of ideas" to be a place for free trade, rather than favoring some over others."
Since the advent of television, aircraft have been featured in numerous miniseries and series around the world. These include the American productions Twelve O'Clock High, Airwolf, Baa Baa Black Sheep, Sky King and Wings; the Australian series Big Sky, Chopper Squad and The Flying Doctors, and the miniseries The Lancaster Miller Affair; British shows such as Airline, Piece of Cake and Squadron, the Canadian series Arctic Air; JETS – Leben am Limit and Medicopter 117 – Jedes Leben zählt from Germany; and the Canadian–British–German co-production Ritter's Cove.
Douglas AD-1 Skyraiders fly RESCAP missions over a downed Grumman F9F Panther and Sikorsky HO3S-1 in Korea in the climax of the 1954 release, The Bridges at Toko-Ri, based on the James A. Michener novel of the same title.
The Skyraider was also featured as one of the many aircraft providing close air support during the First Battle of the Ia Drang Valley Campaign in Mel Gibson's 2002 film We Were Soldiers, based on the non-fiction book We Were Soldiers Once… And Young by Lieutenant General (Ret.) Hal Moore and reporter Joseph L. Galloway.
The 1991 film Flight of the Intruder, centered around two naval aviators during the Vietnam War who take their Grumman A-6 Intruder on an unauthorized bombing raid on Hanoi, from the Stephen Coonts novel of the same name.
A-10 Thunderbolt II
The A-10 is one of the player-flyable aircraft in the 1989 video game U.N. Squadron.
In the 1996 movie Courage Under Fire, A-10s are depicted dropping napalm on the crash site of two downed Huey helicopters after their crews were recovered, and briefly depicted during an account given by a survivor.
The popularity of the A-10s in the 2007 Transformers film led to the toy company releasing a minor character named Wingblade that turned into an A-10.
In the 2009 film Terminator Salvation, several A-10s are sent to support the ground troops led by John Connor in the intro of the movie. Later, two Resistance A-10s are shot down when trying to intercept the machine transport in which Marcus and Kyle Reese were captive.
Two A-26 firebombers were prominently featured in the 1989 Steven Spielberg film, Always. The flying for the film was performed by well-known film pilot Steve Hinton and Dennis Lynch, the owners of the A-26s. Attempts to use radio-controlled models for special effects shots were abandoned as unworkable and models "flown" from wire rigs were utilized instead.
The Mitsubishi A6M Zero was featured in the films The Final Countdown, Pearl Harbor, and Tora! Tora! Tora!. The Zero was also depicted in the 1976 film Midway; however real Zeros were not used. Modified T-6 Texans were used in both Tora! Tora! Tora! and Midway to depict A6M2 Type 21 Zero fighters, and some footage from the former was reused in the latter. Three Type 52 Zeros were used in Pearl Harbor. Two restored aircraft operated by Flight Magic, and one in the Planes of Fame Air Museum collection were barged to Hawaii where "all three aircraft were extensively flown with few problems until NX6528L suffered a gear-up landing. Fortunately, this was near the end of filming. NX6528L was shipped to Pete Regina Aviation at Van Nuys where it was returned to flying condition. This aircraft is now with the Commemorative Air Force Southern California Wing at Camarillo Airport."
Aérospatiale AS365 Dauphin
In the 1989 Bond film Licence to Kill, 007 rides down on a rescue hoist cable from a USCG HH-65 Dauphin, where he attaches the cable to the antagonist's aircraft tail. Once attached, the Coast Guard helicopter is able to drag the Cessna 172 away.
A heavily modified Aérospatiale SA341G Gazelle was the centerpiece of the 1983 John Badham airborne action film Blue Thunder. The same helicopter appeared in the short-lived TV series by the same name starring James Farentino. The modified Gazelle went on to be used in the TV mini-series Amerika.
The Gazelle also played a role in the 1982 television film Deadly Encounter starring Larry Hagman.
The Transformers character Spinister disguises itself as an Apache helicopter.
"Gunship" is an AH-64 Apache helicopter simulation that was released by Microprose in 1986.
The AH-64 also made an appearance in the film Toy Soldiers.
In the film G.I. Joe: The Rise of Cobra, Apaches provide air cover for a convoy of nanotechnology-based weapons.
An AH-64 was used to attempt to suppress the Hulk in the 2008 film, The Incredible Hulk. Although it has the standard, nose mounted M230 Chain Gun, it instead attacks with the unusual configuration of twin, pylon-mounted miniguns.
The assault on what would later be known as the Pegasus Bridge over the Caen Canal in France by British commandos landing in Airspeed Horsa gliders was depicted in the 1962 war epic The Longest Day. Only one Horsa replica was actually constructed.
Ten mockup Airspeed Horsa gliders were fabricated for the filming of A Bridge Too Far, but they were non-flyable.
The Decepticon character Jetstorm from the 2007 Transformers film line is based on the Antonov An-225. This toy shares its body design with Cybertron Jetfire, Classics Fireflight and Universe Air Raid.
Aviation Traders Carvair
An Avro 504 appears in the 1976 British war film Aces High, being used for photo reconnaissance, a role in which the aircraft was widely used. Directed by Jack Gold and starred Malcolm McDowell, Peter Firth, Christopher Plummer and Simon Ward, the screenplay was written by Howard Barker. As acknowledged in the opening credits, the film is based on the 1930s play Journey's End by R. C. Sherriff and the memoir Sagittarius Rising by Cecil Lewis of the Royal Flying Corps. It tells the story of an RFC squadron in the First World War and the high turnover of pilots and the strain on the survivors and includes aerial dogfight scenes.
An Avro 504 also appears in the Lewis Gilbert-directed 1956 British biographical film Reach for the Sky as the training aircraft in which a young Douglas Bader learns to fly, and was based on the 1954 biography of the same name by Paul Brickhill.
An Avro Anson was used as a "stand-in" to represent the Boeing 247 Race 57 flown in the 1934 England-to-Australia MacRobertson Air Race by Roscoe Turner, in the Australian television miniseries The Great Air Race. Turner was played by Barry Bostwick in the miniseries.
An Avro Ashton, in its six-engined, Olympus testbed form appeared as the fictitious Phoenix airliner in Cone of Silence (1960), based on the novel of the same name by David Beaty, a former BOAC pilot. This concerned the takeoff problems of the Phoenix, and the subsequent accident investigation; it was based on two takeoff accidents to the de Havilland Comet.
Avro Canada CF-105 Arrow
The Avro Canada CF-105 Arrow makes a prominent appearance in Daniel Wyatt's 1990 novel, The Last Flight of the Arrow. In the novel, the real-life destruction of the fighter is a cover for a secret US-Canadian continental air-defense initiative that fields a fleet of Arrows. A Polish-Canadian RCAF pilot flies one Arrow on a high-speed reconnaissance flight over Russia to find proof that the Soviets are planning an airstrike on North America.
In 1997, the CBC broadcast The Arrow miniseries. The production used a combination of archival film, remote-control flying models and computer animation for the static, ground and flying sequences. The film won numerous awards, including the Gemini that year.
Len Deighton's 1970 novel Bomber describes an attack by Royal Air Force Avro Lancasters on Krefeld, Germany, during which a series of unplanned incidents leads to the carpet bombing of a small town nearby.
Lancasters appeared in the 1952 British war film Appointment in London (released in the U.S. as Raiders in the Sky) directed by Philip Leacock and starring Dirk Bogarde. Three Lancasters were used in the production—NX673, NX679 and NX782, the same three that were used in the filming of The Dam Busters three years later.
The Lancaster was central to the second half of the 1955 British film The Dam Busters. This is a dramatisation of the real-life Operation Chastise, which included the forming of No. 617 Squadron RAF commanded by Wing Commander Guy Gibson, who was awarded the Victoria Cross (VC), and the bombing of the Möhne, Eder and Sorpe Dams in Germany to interrupt water and hydro-electric power supplies to German munitions factories. The film is based on the books The Dam Busters by Paul Brickhill and Enemy Coast Ahead by Guy Gibson.
Vintage Lancaster NX611 appeared in the 2002 BBC mini-series Night Flight (also released as Night and Day) which featured Christopher Plummer and Edward Woodward as two ageing veterans of Bomber Command who are haunted by the memories of their experiences.
Lancasters appear in a sequence depicting the bombing of Dresden in World War II in the 1992 film Map of the Human Heart directed by Vincent Ward. For the production, a mock-up cockpit section of a Lancaster was constructed and was later displayed at the Bomber Command Museum in Canada.
The spaceship HMS Camden Lock in the BBC2 comedy series Hyperdrive bears the serial number XH558. The set and prop designer, model-maker Andrew Glazebrook, stated "its registration number XH558 is actually that of the Royal Air Force's "Avro Vulcan" bomber and was suggested by the show's writers, Andy Riley and Kevin Cecil." This direct involvement with the Avro Vulcan and its role as a military aircraft is clearly connected to its science-fiction counterpart.
Vulcans are the central feature of the 2008 aviation novel by English author Derek Robinson, titled Hullo Russia, Goodbye England. A British RAF pilot named Silk, a veteran of Bomber Command in the Second World War, rejoins the service at the height of the Cold War.
The Transformers Decepticon named Windsweeper disguises itself as a B-1 Lancer.
A B-1B drops numerous bombs during the climactic battle scene in the 2009 film Transformers: Revenge of the Fallen.
A B-2 launches a nuclear-tipped cruise missile in a failed attempt to destroy an alien spacecraft in the 1996 film Independence Day.
In the 2008 film Cloverfield, a B-2 drops a payload on the monster that is the antagonist in the film.
B-17 Flying Fortress
The B-17 Flying Fortress was the subject of the 1990 Warner Bros. film Memphis Belle. During filming, one of the five vintage B-17s was destroyed in an accidental crash and a second was damaged when an engine cowling detached in flight, tearing a chunk out of the aircraft's tail (and narrowly missing a nearby P-51). There were no injuries in either incident.
The first appearance of the Flying Fortress in film was a Y1B-17 in the 1938 Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer (MGM) production Test Pilot, although for the crash scene a Douglas DC-2 was modified to stand in for the bomber, the Army Air Corps being unwilling to risk even having a fire lit next to the scarce type for filming.
B-17Bs of the 132nd Bomb Squadron, 9th Bomb Group from March Field, California ("Land of the Flying Fortress") were featured in the 1941 Paramount Pictures film I Wanted Wings, based on the novel of the same title by 1st Lt. Beirne Lay, Jr..
The 1943 Warner Bros. film Air Force, directed by Howard Hawks, used at least nine B-17B, C and D model Flying Fortresses to depict the early years of World War II, including the attack on Pearl Harbor.
In William Wyler's 1946 film The Best Years of Our Lives, B-17s are prominently featured. The primary male characters hitch a cross country ride in a B-17E Flying Fortress early in the story, and at the conclusion the scrapyard at Chino, California is shown full of disposal B-17s and YB-40 gunship versions of the B-17.
B-17s also figured prominently in the Oscar-winning 1949 film Twelve O'Clock High starring Gregory Peck. The film focuses on aviation leadership and the human toll in the USAAF strategy of daylight precision bombing. The U.S. Air Force cooperated in the production of the film, lending aircraft to the producers and allowing filming at Eglin Air Force Base and at Ozark Army Air Field. The film featured an actual crash landing of a B-17, piloted by veteran stunt pilot Paul Mantz.
The other post-war (1948) film about early 8th Air Force bomber operations, MGM's Command Decision, with Clark Gable and Walter Pidgeon, relied primarily on combat footage of Flying Fortresses, although at least one B-17F and one B-17G were utilized for ground filming in California.
For the 1954 Universal International Pictures film The Glenn Miller Story, directed by Anthony Mann, a wartime performance set in a U.K. air base hangar was shot in Hangar No. 1 at Lowry Air Force Base, Colorado, on 10 July 1953, with the late-production B-17G command aircraft of Gen. John G. Sprague, commanding officer of Lowry, as a backdrop. It received a wartime coat of olive drab paint for the appearance, but the chin turret has been removed. Anachronistic B-29 engine cowlings line the back wall of the hangar, none of which operated in the ETO.
One ex-USAAF B-17 Flying Fortress and two ex-U.S. Navy PB-1W Flying Fortresses were retrieved from a boneyard, restored, and flown across the Atlantic Ocean for the making of the 1962 Columbia Pictures film The War Lover, based on a John Hersey novel of the same title.
A B-17G operated by Intermountain Airlines, an actual Central Intelligence Agency front company, fitted with the Fulton recovery system, drops rescue gear to James Bond and his Bond girl in the Bahamas at the conclusion of the 1965 film Thunderball. This aircraft had actually been used by the CIA to insert and recover agents in the Arctic that had checked on an abandoned Soviet ice station under Project COLDFEET in 1963.
Two DB-17P former drone-controllers and one B-17F were featured in the 1969 film The Thousand Plane Raid. One of the DB-17Ps briefly appeared in the bio-pic MacArthur in 1977, still wearing the same markings and paint it had for The Thousand Plane Raid.
Five flyable B-17s were secured by producer Elmo Williams for use in the filming of the 1970 motion picture Tora! Tora! Tora!. During filming, one B-17 suffered a malfunction in its landing gear, forcing it to land on one wheel. Williams ordered a camera crew to film the landing and incorporated the footage into the film's script.
B-17s are the main aircraft featured in two recent novels depicting fictional characters in the U.S. daylight bombing offensive over Germany and Occupied Europe, American writer Sam Helpert's A Real Good War (1997) and UK author Robert Radcliffe's Under an English Heaven. (2004).
For George Lucas' 2012 film about the 332d Fighter Group, the Tuskegee Airmen, Red Tails, the B-17G "Pink Lady" operated by the Association Forteresse Toujours Volante, appeared as a 351st Bomb Group aircraft named "Yankee", coded ED-N. Filmed in the Czech Republic in 2010, the film company funding allowed the warbird to fly for an additional year before being retired to museum status. Other Flying Fortresses were rendered through CGI.
A B-24 Liberator was featured in the 1977 TV movie Young Joe, the Forgotten Kennedy.
The North American B-25 Mitchell had feature roles in the films: Thirty Seconds over Tokyo (1944) (pilot Ted Lawson's account of the Doolittle Raid), Hanover Street (1979) based on a fictional B-25 unit stationed in England, and Forever Young (1992), following a B-25 test pilot's story both in the past and present.
The B-25 was the focus of the second half of the 2001 film Pearl Harbor, although critics complained that the bomber and its role were being depicted inaccurately.
The episode "King Nine Will Not Return" of television series The Twilight Zone was based on the "Lady Be Good", a Consolidated B-24 Liberator whose wreckage had been discovered in November 1958, and used a B-25 in place of the B-24. It first aired 30 September 1960.
The Sole Survivor, a 1970 made-for-television film, was also based loosely on the "Lady Be Good", and also featured a B-25 in the Liberator role. It first aired 9 January 1970.
The B-25 is featured in the 1970 Mike Nichols film Catch-22, which had 17 film unit B-25s in flying condition. Like the Battle of Britain's resurrection and ultimate preservation of German and British aviation combatants, the Catch-22 air force helped form a nucleus of the nascent warbirds movement. Fifteen of the 18 bombers used in the film still remain intact, including one on display at the Smithsonian Institution's National Air and Space Museum.
A B-25 is used in the 2011 movie Sucker Punch.
The Boeing B-29 Superfortress has played an important role in several Hollywood films, particularly the "Enola Gay", which dropped the first atomic bomb. The Enola Gay was depicted in Above and Beyond and The Beginning or the End. Film makers also used the only B-29 still flying in 1983 in the film The Right Stuff to recreate the launch of the Bell X-1 for the first supersonic flight.
The B-29 also played the titular role in the 1980 Disney film The Last Flight of Noah's Ark.
The first Hollywood retelling of the 509th Composite Group's preparation for the atomic missions was Above and Beyond, released by MGM in 1953, with Robert Taylor portraying Col. Paul Tibbetts, and Jim Backus as Gen. Curtis LeMay. Filmed at Davis-Monthan Air Force Base.
A B-29 features in the 1954 Cold War drama Hell and High Water directed by Samuel Fuller and starring Richard Widmark. The movie concerns a plot by the Chinese to use a captured B-29 to launch an atomic strike on Korea and then let the United States take the blame for it.
The Convair B-36 featured prominently in Paramount's Strategic Air Command (1955) starring James Stewart, a World War II bomber pilot and member of the Air Force Reserve, who is forced to crash land in the Arctic. The film features many good aerial shots of B-36s and was primarily filmed at Carswell AFB, Texas and in the Tampa, Florida, area. One shot that was particularly difficult to shoot was where Stewart's character, a baseball player was standing on a baseball field and a B-36 flew overhead, casting a shadow over him and foreshadowing his imminent recall to active service.
Ejection seat testing of B-47s performed at Eglin AFB, Florida, in 1953 and 1954 as part of aeromedical research was recreated in the 1955 20th Century Fox film On the Threshold of Space starring Guy Madison.
The 1963 film A Gathering of Eagles focuses on the stresses of a B-52 wing commander at the height of the cold war. Some excellent visuals of the B-52 including a complex inflight refueling operation which nearly ends in disaster.
The B-52 was also a key part of Stanley Kubrick's 1964 black comedy film Dr. Strangelove or: How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb and in A Gathering of Eagles.
The disappearance of a nuclear-armed B-52 in Alaska during the Cuban Missile Crisis and its discovery in 2008 is central to the plot of an historical novel The Alaskan Incident by Chris Rudge published in 2013.
A Beechcraft Model 18 appeared in the 1970 American television situation comedy The Tim Conway Show as the Lucky Linda, the only aircraft operated by Triple A Airlines.
The 1950s syndicated American television series Whirlybirds, produced by Desilu Studios, starred a pair of Bell 47 helicopters. The association with Whirlybirds continues to be used in order to promote helicopters and the Bell 47 in particular. A Bell 47 was also one of the 'stars' of the Australian television series Skippy the Bush Kangaroo.
A Bell 47 depicted a supposed German helicopter in the 1968 action movie Where Eagles Dare. Although experimental German helicopter types did exist in this time period, the Focke-Achgelis Fa 223 was a larger, twin-rotor machine, which was used on only a limited basis.
Chopper Squad was a 1970s Australian television series about a Bell 206 JetRanger used for rescue work in Sydney. The helicopter used was an actual rescue helicopter operated by the Westpac Life Saver Rescue Helicopter Service.
A Bell 206B was one of the helicopters that attacks the oil rig control center of Ernst Stavro Blofeld in the climactic scenes of the 1971 James Bond film Diamonds Are Forever. The Jet Ranger also appeared in the 1977 Bond film The Spy Who Loved Me.
A Bell 222A was featured in the television film Airwolf, which starred Jan-Michael Vincent and Ernest Borgnine. Within the year, the film was made into a TV series which aired from 1984 to 1986. Another modified version known as Airwolf II (also known as Redwolf) was in the series.
In the 1991 film Harley Davidson and the Marlboro Man, a Bell 222UT is used to eliminate the antagonists in a high rise building near downtown Los Angeles.
Bell AH-1 Cobra
In J. J. Abrams Mission: Impossible III, the Impossible Missions Force (IMF) team use a Bell Huey to escape after rescuing one of their team members. They must evade an AH-1 Cobra, which pursues them through a wind farm, firing heat seeking rockets at them.
Bell UH-1 Iroquois
The Bell UH-1 Iroquois (commonly called the Huey) was a central part of the 2002 film We Were Soldiers. The helicopter was shown ferrying troops into the Ia Drang valley as part of the then-new concept of air cavalry. The film particularly focused on the flights of Major Bruce Crandall, who was later awarded the Medal of Honor for his actions while piloting his UH-1 during the battle depicted in the film. Four of the UH-1s used were provided by the Georgia Army National Guard.
The UH-1 was an important part of the 1968 film The Green Berets. The production company paid $18,623.64 for the material, the eighty-five hours of flying time by UH-1 helicopters, and thirty-eight hundred man-days for military personnel taken away from their regular duties.
In the disaster movie Dante's Peak, a UH-1 transports the scientists into the crater of the volcano, and is ultimately destroyed in the eruption.
The slaying of Israeli athletes by Black September terrorists and the destruction of a Bundesgrenzschutz Bell/Dornier UH-1D during the 1972 Summer Olympics was depicted in the 2005 Steven Spielberg film Munich.
A Bell 205 is used as a mountain rescue helicopter in the 1993 film Cliffhanger. The aircraft is used to locate a missing jet and then employed to find stolen money. Towards the film's end the helicopter is dangling upside down against a cliff, where the hero (Sylvester Stallone) and villain (John Lithgow) brawl on the belly of the aircraft.
The Bell X-1 was depicted early in the film The Right Stuff. The film showed the historic flight of the X-1 becoming the first aircraft to break the sound barrier in level flight under its own propulsion. This achievement helped usher in the U.S. space program that was the subject of the rest of the film. Mock-up is now displayed at the Planes of Fame Museum, Chino, California.
For the pilot-film of the TV series Quantum Leap a Bell X-2 mock-up was built, which is now on display at the Planes of Fame Museum, Chino, California, together with the X-1 mock-up from the film The Right Stuff.
In Kaoru Shintani (新谷 かおる)'s air combat franchise Area 88, Area 88's chief tactical advisor, former RAF Major Roundell, pilots a Blackburn Buccaneer in leading the base's best pilots in supporting an attack on an oil refinery. As Roundell has low-level piloting skills, he guides them through a deep canyon on the way to the target. The attack is later featured in the 2004 TV series episode "Canyon – Tightrope at the Speed of Sound."
The Boeing 247D, NR257Y, c/n 1953, "Warner Bros. Comet", race number 5, United Airlines NC13369, leased by Roscoe Turner and fitted with extra fuel tanks, and flown by Turner and Clyde Edward Pangborn in the 1934 MacRobertson Trophy Air Race, was portrayed by Avro Anson, VH-BAF, in the 1991 Australian mini-series The Great Air Race, also known as Half a World Away.
A former United Airlines Boeing 720B stood in for a Boeing VC-137C, Air Force One, serialled 62-6001, in the 1971 ABC Entertainment Group television film The President's Plane Is Missing, based on the 1967 novel of the same title by Robert J. Serling, in which the SAM flight carrying the President of the United States crashes in a storm in Arizona.
The 1996 film Eraser includes an elaborate action sequence involving a parachute jump from a crippled Boeing 727.
A Boeing 747 is the aircraft flown by passengers in the 1975 made for television thriller film Murder on Flight 502.
In the 1990 action film Die Hard 2, a 747 that has been hijacked by terrorists is destroyed by John McClane. Three 23-foot models were fabricated by Industrial Light and Magic with one destroyed during filming done at a remote airstrip in the Mojave Desert of California. The effects were matched to a real 747 filmed taxiing at Alpena, Michigan. The cost of the special effects pushed the film's production costs towards the then-record of $70 million.
The Boeing 747 was featured in the 1996 film Executive Decision as the location of a terrorist hijacking.
A 747 in-flight is also the setting for the 2006 horror-thriller film Snakes on a Plane in which a large number of venomous snakes wriggle loose on the large jet.
In the 2013 'zombie romance' movie Warm Bodies, the central character 'R' resides in the abandoned hulk of a Boeing 747, and rescues the female lead Julie by hiding her there from his fellow zombies.
Boeing PT-17 Stearman
The Boeing PT-17 (Model 75) Stearman, a two-seater trainer designed in 1933, has appeared in a number of films including Independence Day (1996) and The English Patient (1997) and also Pearl Harbor (2001). In 1950, Paul Mantz tore the wings off a PT-13D by flying between two oaks for "When Willie Comes Marching Home."
Graphic novelist Garth Ennis' 2007 revival of the old British war comic hero Battler Britton: Bloody Good Show, featured the ace fighter pilot commanding a squadron of Bristol Beaufighters in North Africa during the Second World War.
A Bristol Blenheim IV, restored from a Bolingbroke IVT, appeared in the 1995 film Richard III, an adaptation of Shakespeare's play directed by and starring Ian McKellen; who set the play in an imaginary 1930s England ruled by a fascist-style Monarch.
A replica Bristol F2B mounted on skis was featured in the 1981 film Death Hunt which starred Charles Bronson and Lee Marvin. The replica, which was constructed in the U.S. and had an inverted Ford Ranger engine instead of a Rolls-Royce, was originally commissioned in 1979 to appear in the movie High Road to China (1983), but was not used in that production.
In the long-running British First World War comic strip Charley's War, published in Battle Picture Weekly 1979–1986 and written by Pat Mills and illustrated by Joe Colquhoun, the storyline goes on a tangent when Charley Bourne's younger brother Wilf enlists under-age and becomes an observer/gunner in a Bristol F2B squadron in France in early 1918.
Bristol Type 170 Freighter
A Bristol Type 170 Freighter Mk. 11A played a major role in the 1957 British film The Man in the Sky directed by Charles Crichton and starring Jack Hawkins who played a test pilot. A major sequence of the film featured Hawkins testing a Bristol Type 170 when one of the engines catches fire and he has to stay aloft long enough to use up enough fuel in order to make an emergency landing with one engine and one wheel. The film was distributed in the U.S. under the title Decision Against Time. The Bristol Freighter that starred in the film, G-AIFV, was damaged in a crash during filming. After repairs it returned to service with Silver City Airways until it was retired and scrapped in 1962.
In the 1963 film The Great Escape, the characters played by James Garner and Donald Pleasence steal a Bücker Bü 181 Bestmann from a German airfield in a bid to fly to neutral Switzerland; however, the aircraft develops engine problems and crashes.
C-47 Skytrain / C-53 Skytrooper / Dakota
- See also Aircraft in fiction#Douglas DC-3 for the civilian aircraft on which the Dakota was based
Eleven aircraft were gathered for airdrop scenes in the film A Bridge Too Far, all of which had to be of a paratroop configuration, representing the C-53 Skytrooper variant.
The 20th Century Fox production The Big Lift (originally titled Quartered City), set during the Berlin Airlift, was filmed in Berlin at a former German studio near Tempelhof in 1949 and Douglas C-54 Skymasters were prominently featured. Military personnel from Rhein-Main Air Base appeared as extras.
C-119 Flying Boxcar
The 1990 film Air America loosely recounted the exploits of the Central Intelligence Agency proprietary airline in Southeast Asia in the 1960s and early 1970s and featured Fairchild C-123K Providers leased from the Royal Thai Air Force.
The C-123 was featured in the 1997 film Con Air, with much of the film's action taking place in and around the aircraft. Three C-123s were used in the production of the film. One aircraft was used for all of the flying sequences. Another was used for the taxiing scenes and the third Provider, non-airworthy and in poor condition, was dismantled and its fuselage used for the filming of the climatic crash scene.
In the 1990 action film Die Hard 2, John McClane ejects from the cockpit of a grounded C-123 for a parachute recovery just before terrorists destroy it. A full-scale fuselage mock-up, molded from a real Provider, was rigged with 3,000 bullet hits, each one drilled and loaded with a charge, tapped, and wired to discharge in sequence. Actual pyrotechnics work was done at Indian Dunes, California, with actor Bruce Willis' ejection composited into the shot later.
Instead of using a Soviet transport plane, a Lockheed C-130 Hercules (or Lockheed L-100 Hercules civilian model in military markings) was featured in the 1987 James Bond film The Living Daylights, although a C-123K Provider was swapped out in some tail ramp fight scene close-ups.
The special operations variant, the Lockheed MC-130 Combat Talon, was featured as the rescue aircraft in the film Air Force One, performing a daring mid-air rescue of the President and his family as Air Force One is failing and going into the water.
In the 2007 film Transformers a close air support variant of the C-130, the AC-130 gunship, is used to drive off the Decepticons after the military base in Qatar is attacked, by executing a pylon turn to deliver ground fire.
In the 2013 film Olympus Has Fallen, a C-130 armed with multi-barrel cannons attacks Washington, D.C. and shoots down two USAF F-22 Raptor fighters sent to intercept it. The C-130 is shot down by another F-22 and crashes into the Washington Monument, causing part of it to collapse.
In the 2013 film Lone Survivor, a C-130 variant provides firepower as Luttrell is extracted from the village towards the end of the film.
A restored Commonwealth Aircraft Corporation Wirraway, an Australian production variant of the North American NA-16 Harvard, appeared in the beach landing scenes in the 1998 war film The Thin Red Line directed by Terence Malick and based on the 1962 James Jones novel of the same name. In the movie, the aircraft is painted to depict a Douglas SBD Dauntless dive-bomber.
The Caproni Ca.60 Noviplano, a nine-wing flying boat of which only a single prototype was constructed and which crashed on its first test flight in 1921, features in the 2013 Japanese animated feature The Wind Rises, a romantic dramatization of the life of Japanese aircraft designer Jiro Horikoshi. In the film, the Italian aeronautical designer Giovanni Caproni appears as a mentor to Horikoshi in several dream sequences, one of which features a tour of the Ca.60.
A Caudron 277 was used to play the role of both British and German two-seaters in the 1966 First World War aerial epic The Blue Max directed by John Guillermin and based on the 1964 novel of the same name by Jack D. Hunter.
CG-4 Haig / Hadrian
Crashed WACO CG-4A gliders of the 99th Troop Carrier Squadron were depicted by replicas in the film Saving Private Ryan. These were recreated using measurements taken from a surviving example at the Museum of Army Flying, Middle Wallop, Hampshire, England.
CH-34 Choctaw / Westland Wessex
A surplus U.S. Army S-58DT (a converted UH-34D) was prominently featured as Screaming Mimi in the 1984–86 television series Riptide, and remains in service as N9VY.
CH-46 Sea Knight / Boeing-Vertol 107
In the 1967 James Bond film You Only Live Twice a KV-107 has an electromagnet slung loaded underneath, and is used to airlift an antagonist's car off the road, thereby freeing up 007 from their pursuit.
A Kawasaki-built KV-107 portrays a U.S. Navy UH-46 Sea Knight that airlifts a team of hijackers aboard the USS Missouri in the 1992 film Under Siege, and is later depicted being blown up on the ship's fantail. Filming was done aboard the USS Alabama museum ship.
CH-47 Chinook / Boeing-Vertrol 234
In the 2000 film Rules of Engagement two Boeing-Vertrol 234 Chinook helicopters are portrayed as U.S. Marines CH-46 Sea Knights. The helicopters transport a rescue team to evacuate personal from a fallen embassy in Yemen.
Dassault Mirage 2000
The Dassault Mirage 2000-5 featured prominently in the 2005 French film Les Chevaliers du Ciel (The Knights of the Sky in literal translation, released as Sky Fighters in English-speaking territories).
de Havilland Canada DHC-2 Beaver
The de Havilland Canada DHC-2 Beaver was central to the film Six Days Seven Nights. The actual flying in the film was done by its star, Harrison Ford, who enjoyed flying the Beaver so much that he bought one after filming was completed. Three flying Beavers and four non-flyable were used in the production, all detailed to exactly match one another.
The 1982 film Mother Lode made use of a Canadian-registered former United States Army DHC-2 Beaver on floats as the neglected mount of character Jean Dupré (Nick Mancuso), who embarks on a search for a missing friend in northern British Columbia. During the filming the aircraft actually crashed while landing on a lake and sank. This accident was not in the original script, but the footage was retained and incorporated into the film's plot. The aircraft was recovered from the lake, repaired, restored and exported to the United States.
de Havilland Comet
de Havilland DH.4
de Havilland DH.88 Comet
A pair of non-flying replica de Havilland DH.88 Comets, "G-ACSS", which was taxiable, and "G-ACSP", static, appeared in the 1991 Australian mini-series The Great Air Race, about the 1934 London to Melbourne MacRobertson Trophy Air Race. It is also known as Half a World Away. Comet G-ACSS, "Grosvenor House", race number 34, was the outright winner of the competition, while G-ACSP, "Black Magic", number 63, got lost, had to refuel with low-octane motoring petrol, and subsequently was forced out of the race when its engines burned up.
de Havilland DH.89 Dragon Rapide
A vintage de Havilland DH-89A Dragon Rapide 6 featured in the episode "Out of Time" in Season 1 of the BBC sci-fi series Torchwood (2006). The story features a DH-89 carrying three occupants, landing at Cardiff airport in the present day, having mysteriously transported in time from 1953.
Dragon Rapide, VH-BGP, portrayed Rapide, ZK-ACO, "Tainui", race number 60, in the 1991 Australian mini-series The Great Air Race, about the 1934 London to Melbourne MacRobertson Trophy Air Race. It is also known as Half a World Away.
de Havilland Fox Moth
The novel Round the Bend by Nevil Shute is the story of two men, both British Licensed Aircraft Engineers. A large number of different aircraft types, both fictitious and real, feature in the book. The narrator and one of the protagonists of the story is Tom Cutter, and the novel details his efforts to establish an air charter business in Bahrain immediately after World War II. His first aircraft is a de Havilland Fox Moth; it is later joined by several other aircraft as the business expands, mostly fictitious, but among them a Percival Proctor.
de Havilland Hornet Moth
The novel Hornet Flight by Ken Follett is a thriller of the Resistance against the Nazi occupation of Denmark in World War II. In the novel a de Havilland Hornet Moth is used by the protagonists to fly from Denmark to the United Kingdom with information about a German radar system. The author drew inspiration from an actual flight that took place during World War II.
de Havilland Mosquito
De Havilland Mosquitos feature prominently in the 1964 film 633 Squadron alongside actors Cliff Robertson and Harry Andrews. The film was notable for its use of genuine, airworthy aircraft, rather than models, for many of the scenes.
Mosquitos are featured prominently in The Adventures of Tintin comic book album The Red Sea Sharks. They drive the plot in various ways, first as war-surplus equipment offered for sale by an arms dealer early in the story, and later in combat.
Scott Summers and his younger brother Alex Summers, members of Marvel Comics' X-Men, are orphaned as children after parachuting out of their father's Mosquito when it is set ablaze by an alien attack.
de Havilland Puss Moth
A de Havilland Leopard Moth was painted as de Havilland DH.80 Puss Moth,VH-UQO, "My Hildegarde", race number 16, for the 1991 Australian mini-series The Great Air Race, about the 1934 London to Melbourne MacRobertson Air Race. It is also known as Half a World Away.
de Havilland Vampire
The de Havilland Vampire was central to the plot of the novella, The Shepherd by British novelist Frederick Forsyth, the story of an RAF pilot attempting to fly home for Christmas from RAF Celle, Germany, to RAF Lakenheath on Christmas Eve 1957. The fact that the DH.100 was not fitted with ejection seats until about ten years later, and hence was a major challenge to bail out of, is an important element of the story.
A French Air Force Vampire appears in the 1954 French-language comic La grande menace by Jacques Martin, the first featuring investigative journalist Guy Lefranc; it was destroyed while engaging an unidentified helicopter.
Douglas DC-2, PH-AJU, "Uiver", race number 44, was depicted by Douglas DC-3, VH-ANR, in the 1991 Australian mini-series The Great Air Race, about the 1934 London to Melbourne MacRobertson Trophy Air Race. It is also known as Half a World Away.
- See also C-47 Skytrain / Dakota for military versions of the DC-3
The chief character of the 1965 novel High Citadel by Desmond Bagley is an alcoholic former Korean War fighter pilot who flies a Douglas DC-3 for a small airline in a fictional Andean country in South America. He is forced at gunpoint by his co-pilot—a Communist agent—to crash-land the DC-3 at a remote abandoned mine in the Andes so that Communists planning a coup can capture and kill a politician travelling as a passenger.
A DC-3 starred in the 1982 British television series Airline. The aircraft used to depict the DC-3 of the fictional Ruskin Air Services was also used in the television series Tenko and Band of Brothers.
In the 1994 film Richie Rich, the Rich family own and pilot a DC-3, named "Billion Dollar One", which crashes in the Atlantic due to a bomb on board.
The DC-3 features in a chase scene in the 2008 James Bond film Quantum of Solace.
A former USAF Douglas C-54 Skymaster operated by Transocean Airlines portrayed the Douglas DC-4 in the 1954 film The High and the Mighty based on the Ernest K. Gann novel of the same name. Ironically, this airframe was lost over the Pacific on 28 March 1964 with an engine fire just as depicted in the film. There were no survivors of the nine "souls on board" and the wreckage was never found.
In the 1990 action film Die Hard 2, a Douglas DC-8 is given false landing instructions by terrorists and crash lands in a blizzard, resulting in fatalities to all on board. Industrial Light and Magic used a 23-foot long model to shoot the effects of the crash and explosion. Filming was done at a remote airstrip in the Mojave Desert of California. "However, shots of the passengers' frightened reactions to the initial impact, which had been shot on a set and originally cut into the movie, were so terrifying (made all the more authentic by preproduction research of Federal Aviation Administration test crashes and data from real aircraft crashes) that they were ultimately cut before the film's release." ILM constructed five DC-8 models for the production.
English Electric Lightning
The 1976 children's book Thunder and Lightnings by Jan Mark is about the relationship of two boys – otherwise outsiders – who share an interest in aeroplanes, in particular the English Electric Lightnings flown by the local squadron. The author was awarded the Carnegie Medal in 1978 the book.
A Eurocopter EC665 Tiger attack helicopter has a starring role in the 1995 James Bond film GoldenEye. On the 2002 Special Edition DVD, the director's commentary notes the aircraft's appearances in the film's Monte Carlo scenes were of a prototype Tiger provided by the French Navy along with its test platform, the frigate La Fayette (F710). Its other appearances throughout the rest of the film were special effects models.
Protagonist Lt. Harry Brubaker flew a McDonnell F2H Banshee in the 1953 James A. Michener novel The Bridges at Toko-Ri. In the subsequent 1954 film adaptation, his aircraft was changed to a Grumman F9F Panther.
The 1941 Warner Bros. film Dive Bomber showed Grumman F3Fs. F3F-2, BuNo 0989, '6-F-4', of VF-6, assigned to USS Enterprise, is one of the best-known F3F-2's due to the fact it is the aircraft that Fred MacMurray "crashed" in this movie. Filming began at NAS North Island, San Diego, California, on 20 March 1941.
F-4 Phantom II
In the movie Iron Eagle II, F-4s appear as Soviet MiGs. The aircraft were provided by the Israeli Air Force for the production.
The F4U Corsair was a regularly featured aircraft of VMF-214 in the 1976–1978 television series Baa Baa Black Sheep, based on the experiences of Pappy Boyington. The series was later renamed Black Sheep Squadron.
F-5 Freedom Fighter/Tiger II
The sole Grumman XF5F-1 Skyrocket, which never entered production or squadron service, was incorporated as the primary mount for Blackhawk and the Blackhawk Squadron in wartime editions of the anthology series Military Comics published by Quality Comics, the first issue of which was published in August 1941. The long-running title was later acquired by DC Comics, with the squadron upgrading to more modern types.
Grumman F6F Hellcats appeared in the 1951 motion-picture Flying Leathernecks directed by Nicholas Ray and starring John Wayne. One of the pilots who flew aircraft for the aerial scenes in the production was Marine Captain Phil De Groot who, after completing work on the film, flew in the Korean War and was wounded in action. The production was filmed at a small airstrip at Camp Pendleton, California. De Groot said, "They put some sand all over the strip, and some palm trees, and built a little pagoda there, simulating Guadalcanal..."
The Grumman F9F-2 Panther was prominently featured in the 1954 films Men of the Fighting Lady and The Bridges at Toko-Ri, although the protagonist instead flew a McDonnell F2H Banshee in the 1953 novel of the same name on which the latter film was based. Footage of the famous non-fatal F9F-5 Panther ramp strike accident that occurred on 23 June 1951 as Commander George Chamberlain Duncan attempted to land on USS Midway in BuNo 125228, in which the forward fuselage broke away and rolled down the deck, has been used in several films including Men of the Fighting Lady, Midway, and The Hunt For Red October.
A heat-seeking missile launched by a Grumman F11F Tiger that accidentally strikes the port area of Latakia, Syria, setting off secondary explosions, gives the Soviet Union the casus belli for preemptive nuclear strikes against the United States in Alas, Babylon, the post-apocalyptic 1959 novel by Pat Frank.
The Grumman F-14 Tomcat was central to the film Top Gun. The aviation-themed film was such a success in creating interest in naval aviation that the U.S. Navy, which assisted with the film, set up recruitment desks outside some theaters. Producers paid the U.S. Navy $886,000 as reimbursement for flight time of aircraft in the film with an F-14 flight hour billed at $7,600.
Two F-14As of VF-84 from the USS Nimitz appeared in the 1980 film The Final Countdown, with four from the squadron in the 1996 release Executive Decision, the Jolly Rogers' final film appearance before being disestablished. The military legal drama TV series JAG (1995–2005) featured lead character Harmon Rabb, a Tomcat pilot-turned-lawyer, and the Tomcat was a central part of the Stephen Coonts novel Final Flight.
The F-14 Tomcat is the primary focus of the 1987 Williams pinball machine "F-14 Tomcat".
The McDonnell Douglas F-15 Eagle is one of the most recognized modern fighters; this has led to, or perhaps even been aided by, its common use in children's toys. The Transformers toy line and media have featured numerous characters who turn into F-15 Eagles, the most notable being the villain Starscream in 1984 and a group of similar Decepticons, the Seekers: Acid Storm, Thundercracker, Skywarp and Sunstorm. Although completely unrelated design to the others, the Aerialbot Air Raid also disguises himself as an F-15.
The F-15 is featured in the film Air Force One. The Eagle was also shown in advertisements for the film Thirteen Days. The ads were withdrawn when it came to the attention of New Line Cinema that the F-15, which first flew in 1972, was out of place for a movie set in 1962. This was problematic for New Line, who had termed the film a "by-the-numbers recreation" and "close to perfect." "Every ship, plane, truck and craft that moves in the film is absolutely authentic to the time period", said Steve Elzer, a spokesman for New Line. Mr. Elzer said the advertisement was created by an outside agency.
F-16 Fighting Falcon
The General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon was featured in the film The Sum of All Fears. The Falcon was also one of the stars of the film Iron Eagle. The U.S. Air Force refused to assist with production of the film because it found the plot about a teenager flying an F-16 into a foreign country to be "a little off the wall".
The Transformers character Needlenose disguises itself as an F-16XL.
The McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet appears in the 1994 film Clear and Present Danger which was directed by Phillip Noyce. The jet drops a laser-guided bomb on a car at a drug lord's villa, being laser designated by a special forces team.
The F/A-18 Hornet was prominently featured in the film Independence Day and was filmed using F/A-18 squadrons belonging to the 3rd Marine Corps Aircraft Wing at El Toro and Miramar, in California.
The F/A-18F Super Hornet, a two-seat variant, was featured in the 2001 film Behind Enemy Lines, directed by John Moore, and starring Owen Wilson and Gene Hackman. The movie centers around a Super Hornet being shot down over Bosnia.
The F/A-18 Hornet appeared briefly in the 2003 film Tears of the Sun in the final, climactic battle, helping to save the surviving SEAL team members.
In the 2013 Disney animated movie Planes, the characters Bravo and Echo are based on the F/A-18E Super Hornet.
Although the F-20 never entered service, in Barrett Tillman's 1991 novel Warriors, the Royal Saudi Air Force orders over a hundred of them. The RSAF assigns the fighter to select pilots who graduate from a localized version of Top Gun established by former USAF and USN pilots. The bigger plot of the novel involves the Saudi pilots joining a pan-Arab attack against Israel.
After appearing briefly in the 2003 Hulk film, the F-22 made its major Hollywood début in the 2007 film Transformers and its 2009 sequel as the form taken by the Decepticon character Starscream in addition to numerous USAF fighters that engaged during the initial and climactic battles. The film crew was allowed to film actual Raptors in flight, unlike previous computer-generated appearances, because of the military's support of director Michael Bay. The Raptors were filmed at Edwards Air Force Base. The real Raptor made its next big screen appearance in Iron Man, in which a Raptor call sign "Whiplash 1" lost its left wing during a mid-air collision with the Iron Man armor.
Although the live-action 2007 film Transformers made Starscream the best-known Transformer that turns into an F-22, there were other F-22 Transformers before it. For instance the 1997 Machine Wars versions of Megatron and Megaplex transformed into F-22s.
In the 2013 film Olympus Has Fallen, computer animation was used to depict F-22 Raptors intercepting an armed AC-130 attacking Washington, D.C.; two F-22s are shot down before a third hits the AC-130 with a missile, causing it to crash.
F-35 Lightning II
The first major film appearance of a representation of a Lockheed Martin F-35 Lightning II was 2006's Superman Returns. During this film, a pair of F-35A fighters escorted the modified Boeing 777 mothership for an experimental NASA spaceplane. This visualization was a combination of an actual cockpit and CGI for the aircraft in flight.
The next major film appearance of an F-35 was in Live Free or Die Hard (released as Die Hard 4 outside North America) in 2007. The film used a combination of a full-scale model and CGI effects.
The Transformers character of the Autobot Breakaway and its redeco the Decepticon Thrust from the Revenge of the Fallen toy both disguise themselves as F-35s. Breakaway appears as a playable character in the 2009 Revenge of the Fallen video game.
F-35s are depicted in the 2012 film The Avengers. The film was originally intended to include real F-35s, but the United States Department of Defense objected to the depiction of F-22s and F-35s as under the control of S.H.I.E.L.D., a covert, "extra-governmental" organization whose loyalties are unclear, so CGI aircraft were substituted instead.
Desmond Bagley's 1965 novel High Citadel features F-86 Sabres, which make up the frontline equipment of the air force of the fictional South American country in which the book is set. There are four squadrons of Sabres; two are loyal to the current corrupt government; one is secretly loyal to a reformist politician who is returning from exile to take over the country; and the fourth is secretly loyal to Communist forces who are attempting to kill the politician. The latter part of the novel features a dogfight between a Sabre flown by one of the main characters—a CIA agent and former Sabre pilot who fought in the Korean War—and aircraft of the Communist squadron.
A Sabre plays an important role in the 1999 film comedy Blast from the Past which stars Brendan Fraser and Christopher Walken. During the Cuban Missile Crisis, a Sabre pilot is forced to eject over a residential area in the U.S. and the aircraft just happens to crash onto the house of an eccentric father who is sheltering with his family in a large underground bomb shelter he has constructed. Believing the crash to be the impact of a nuclear bomb, the family remain underground for 35 years.
A pair of McDonnell F-101B Voodoos fly over the Russian submarine Спрут at the end of the 1966 comedy The Russians Are Coming, the Russians Are Coming, directed by Norman Jewison. Although the film is set in New England, it was filmed on the West Coast and the fighters were from the 84th Fighter-Interceptor Squadron, based at the now-closed Hamilton Air Force Base, California.
Gen. Charles "Chuck" Yeager's 10 December 1963 flying accident during a test flight in a modified rocket-boosted Lockheed NF-104A Starfighter was featured in The Right Stuff motion picture, although the aircraft used for filming was a standard German Luftwaffe F-104G, flying with its wingtip fuel tanks removed, but otherwise lacking any of the NF-104A's modifications, most visibly the rocket engine pod at the base of the vertical stabilizer.
An F-104 made regular appearances on the 1960s television sitcom I Dream of Jeannie. Leading man Major Anthony Nelson (Larry Hagman), a pilot in the U.S. Air Force, was often to be seen landing and climbing out of the cockpit of an F-104A. That particular aircraft – 56-817 – later became part of the collection of the Pacific Aviation Museum on Ford Island, Oahu, Hawaii.
The F-104 is featured heavily in the 1964 film The Starfighters, directed by Will Zens and starring future U.S. Congressman Bob Dornan. The film later appeared on the Comedy Central series Mystery Science Theater 3000 as the subject of episode #612.
Fairchild UC-61 Forwarder
A former United States Army Air Force Fairchild UC-61A Forwarder makes a brief appearance to represent the Noorduyn UC-64A Norseman, in which big band leader Glenn Miller disappeared in December 1944, in the 1954 Universal International Pictures film The Glenn Miller Story, painted in USAAF colours.
The same aircraft was also featured in a 1964 episode of Michael Bentine's BBC TV comedy programme, It's a Square World, about a shoestring airline with a staff of two. Filming took a day at Elstree Aerodrome, Herts. In 1965, it appeared in an episode of the ITV programme, The Moonraker.
Fairchild Hiller FH-227
When Uruguayan Air Force (Fuerza Aérea Uruguaya) Flight 571's Fairchild Hiller FH-227D, T-571 crashed in the Argentine Andes on 13 October 1972, it begat a tale of amazing human survival for the 16 of the 45 on board who were rescued over two months later, after two passengers walked to civilization. The survivors' story was published in Alive: The Story of the Andes Survivors, a critically acclaimed book by Piers Paul Read, in 1974. When the story was filmed in 1992 as Alive, directed by Frank Marshall, a similar FH-227 was marked as the doomed aircraft for some shots while Industrial Light and Magic depicted the crash using an eight-foot breakaway model, designed to shear at mid-fuselage. The nose and tail were heavily reinforced while a non-reinforced midsection was built up of plastic, foil, wires and metals so that when it broke it would have the layered metal look of a real airframe breaking up. A cable system was rigged to fly the model, which was on an aligned track, into the miniature mountain, hitting the "sweet spot" on the fuselage, a weakened area barely three inches long.
The Fairey Fox I, G-ACXO, race number 35, which participated in the 1934 London to Melbourne MacRobertson Trophy Air Race, was portrayed in the 1991 Australian mini-series The Great Air Race, also known as Half a World Away, by an unlikely Boeing Stearman.
Focke-Wulf Fw 190
Fw-190s feature in the French graphic novel The Grand Duke (2012) written by Yann, illustrated by Romain Hugault and depicting aerial combat between the Soviet airforce and the German Luftwaffe over the Eastern Front in the latter stages of the Second World War.
A Focke Wulf Fw Triebflügel aircraft was featured in the 2011 American superhero film Captain America: The First Avenger, with the supervillain Red Skull making his first escape in this rocket-aircraft. The scene accurately depicts the rocket and ramjet start and initial climb out of the Triebflügel. Historically, the Triebflügel had only reached wind-tunnel testing when the Allied forces reached the production facilities, and no complete prototype was ever built. CGI vehicles designed for the film were based on real historical aircraft such as the Triebflügel.
A scarlet-painted Fokker Dr.I triplane featured in the DC comic Enemy Ace and was the mount of the central character Baron Hans von Hammer, a German fighter pilot in the First World War. Debuting in 1965, the comic was written by Robert Kanigher and drawn by Joe Kubert and the character has been revived several times since by other writers & artists.
A pair of Dr.Is featured in the 1966 motion-picture epic The Blue Max, directed by John Guillermin and based on the 1964 novel of the same name by Jack D. Hunter. In the film, rival pilots Stachel (George Peppard) and von Klugermann (Jeremy Kemp) try to out-do one another in a test of nerves by flying their triplanes under a bridge. The scene was filmed at Formoy Viaduct in Ireland and stunt pilot Derek Piggott was obliged to fly a Dr.I under the bridge, through either the wide or narrow spans, a total of 32 times.
The Government Aircraft Factories (GAF) Nomad, an Australian-built twin-engine STOL (Short Take-Off and Landing) aircraft, was a regular feature on the successful Australian TV series The Flying Doctors which aired on the Nine Network 1986–1993. The GAF Nomad had a controversial history with a high accident rate. Of the 172 that were constructed, 32 were involved in major hull-loss accidents, resulting in 76 fatalities including GAF test pilot Stuart Pearce (father of actor Guy Pearce).
Gee Bee Racer
Gloster Gladiators feature in the Second World War novel Signed with their Honour, written in 1942 by Australian author and war correspondent James Aldridge. The novel is set during the Axis invasion of Greece in 1940–41 and the central character is a British pilot named John Quayle who flies Gladiators with No. 80 Squadron RAF. An attempt in 1943 to make a film based on the novel was abandoned when two Gladiators were destroyed in a mid-air collision during the production.
A privately owned Gloster Meteor TT20, N94749 appeared in the two-part 1976 episode, "The Feminum Mystique", of the first season of the Wonder Woman television series, as the experimental "XPJ-1" fighter which is stolen by the Nazis. This airframe has been donated to the Edwards AFB Flight Test Center museum. The episode title was borrowed from Betty Friedan's 1963 book of a similar title, which is widely credited with sparking the beginning of second-wave feminism in the United States.
A Gotha G.IV appears in the 2006 First World War aerial film Flyboys directed by Tony Bill and starring James Franco. To depict the bomber, the producers used both computer-generated imagery and a replica of the forward fuselage of a Gotha, now displayed in a museum at RAF Manston.
Grumman G-21 Goose
A Grumman G-21 Goose, painted red, white and black, named "Cutter's Goose", was the main transport of protagonist Jake Cutter (played by Stephen Collins) in the early 1982–83 adventure television series, Tales of the Gold Monkey, and used to transport Cutter and his allies among various south Pacific islands in the late 1930s setting of the show.
Grumman HU-16 Albatross
The 1964 film Flight from Ashiya, starring Richard Widmark, Yul Brynner and George Chakiris, follows the crews of two Grumman HU-16 Albatross of the USAF Air Rescue Service as they attempt to rescue the survivors of a Japanese shipwreck in the North China Sea.
The 2010 film The Expendables also features an Albatross as the protagonists' private airplane.
Grumman TBF / General Motors TBM Avenger
A group of Avengers appears in the opening scene of Steven Spielberg's 1977 sci-fi film Close Encounters of the Third Kind. In the scene, a group of officials arrive at an isolated cantina in Mexico's Sonora Desert where the five Avengers of 'Flight-19' have mysteriously appeared overnight. Flight 19 was the infamous training flight of five TBMs that vanished without trace after taking off from Fort Lauderdale, Florida, on 5 December 1945. One of the TBMs that featured in the scene was the TBM-3E (BuNo 53503) now currently owned and flown by the Rocky Mountain Wing of the Commemorative Air Force (CAF).
The Transformers Autobot named Dogfight disguises himself as a Grumman X-29.
In Kaoru Shintani's manga series Area 88, main character Shin Kazama pilots an X-29 during the final battles.
HAL HF-24 Marut
The Bollywood war film Border is a fictionalized account of the 1971 Battle of Longewala between India and Pakistan. In the film a formation of supersonic HAL Marut fighter-bombers of the Indian Air Force bomb Pakistani armoured ground forces consisting of 300 tanks and APCs.
The Harrier family's unique VTOL characteristics have led to them being featured in a number of films and flight simulator programs. Two AV-8B Harrier IIs were used in the film True Lies. The aircraft was prominent in the latter part of the film, being used by Arnold Schwarzenegger's character to rescue his daughter from terrorists in a Miami high rise and shoot down their helicopter.
In the film Battlefield Earth (2000), a U.S. Air Base with 1000-year old Harriers, is discovered. The primitive tribesmen use a flight simulator to train themselves to fly and later use the Harriers to attack and destroy the Alien's city.
The Gobots character Royal-T and the Transformers Aerialbot named Slingshot disguise themselves as a Harrier. In the Revenge of the Fallen Decepticon character Dirge also became a Harrier. This design was later used for the Decepticon Jetblade.
The Harrier was one of the aircraft types featured in the short-lived 1982 BBC-TV series Squadron which was a drama about a fictional Royal Air Force unit, 373 Squadron. The unit was a Rapid Deployment Force and featured an unusual mix of aircraft including Harriers, C-130 Hercules and Puma helicopters. The series ran for 10 episodes.
A prototype Harrier was used in the TV series The Saint (1962–1969) in Season 5, Episode 13 Flight Plan (Aired June 25, 1967). In the show Simon Templar has to retrieve a prototype aircraft called the Osprey that was stolen by its test pilot and flown to a middle eastern country. The Osprey is portrayed by a Hawker Siddeley P.1127 and a Hawker Siddeley Kestrel, both early versions of the Harrier.
Handley Page Victor
The 1963 British film The Iron Maiden features a Handley Page Victor bomber as a fictional supersonic passenger-carrying airliner designed by the protagonist. At the end of the film, this fictional airliner is named after the eponymous traction engine.
A number of Hawker Hurricanes, including the last one built, registered G-AMAU, "The Last of the Many", and five provided by the Portuguese Air Force, which flew the type until mid-1954, were utilized in the making of the Templar Productions Ltd. production provisionally titled "Hawks in the Sun", based on the book What Are Your Angels Now? by Wing Commander A.J.C. Pelham Groom, then released in March 1952 as Angels One Five.
Hurricanes were featured in the 1956 British film Reach For the Sky starring Kenneth More and directed by Lewis Gilbert and based on the biography of Douglas Bader by Paul Brickhill. One Hurricane which featured in a static role in the film was the Mk. I, P2617, now preserved at the Royal Air Force Museum, Hendon. Another, which flew in the aerial scenes, was the Mk-IIc, LF363, now operated by the Battle of Britain Memorial Flight based at Conningsby, UK.
A Hawker Hurricane was the fighter flown by the Second World War character Johnny Redburn in the long-running British comic strip Johnny Red which was published in Battle Picture Weekly 1977–1987. The storyline featured Redburn, having been discharged from the RAF and joining the Merchant Navy, commandeers a CAM ship's Hurricane during an attack on a convoy (the official pilot being incapacitated), and ends up stranded in Soviet Russia at the height of the war against the Germans in which he fights alongside Russian pilots. The comic was written by Tom Tully and illustrated by Joe Colquhoun, John Cooper and Carlos Pino.
The Hawker Hurricane Mk. I features as the aircraft for the fictional RAF pilots depicted in the novels Piece of Cake (1983) by Derek Robinson and Blue Man Falling (2006) by Frank Barnard.
Hiller UH-12 / OH-23 Raven
A Hiller UH-12E suffered a tail-rotor strike during filming of the 1978 film Attack of the Killer Tomatoes. Footage of the crash was used in the film. The helicopter pilot and actors on board escaped without serious injury, but the helicopter was destroyed.
A Hiller 360 (UH-12) appears in the 1951 sci-fi movie When Worlds Collide directed by George Pal and based on the 1933 novel of the same name. The helicopter is used to render assistance to flood-stranded refugees and to rescue a young boy stranded on a rooftop.
The Zeppelin LZ 129 Hindenburg was the subject of the 1975 film The Hindenburg, which speculated sabotage as the cause of the 1937 disaster at Naval Air Station Lakehurst, New Jersey. The studio model of the airship is now displayed in the Smithsonian Institution's National Air and Space Museum in Washington, D.C.
Twenty-eight former Spanish Air Force Hispano Aviación HA-1112s were used in the film Battle of Britain as "stand-ins" to depict Messerschmitt Bf 109 fighters of the Luftwaffe, 27 single-seat M1Ls, and one two-seat M4L. Eighteen were flown, six could taxi, the rest used to dress sets. In the mid-1960s at the time aircraft began to be collected for the film to be made, the only genuine Bf 109s known to exist were unairworthy examples in museums such as the Imperial War Museum and the South African National Museum of Military History or in private hands; whereas the HA-1112 was just being retired from service with the Spanish Air Force and several airframes in flyable condition and some 50 dismantled Buchóns were up for disposal bid. The four airframes acquired by the Confederate Air Force just prior to the start of filming "were the first Buchóns in truly civilian ownership, early members of the fledgling warbird preservation movement."
Several Buchóns were painted in RAF markings for the 1969 Italian "macaroni combat" war film Eagles Over London, also known as Battle Squadron and Battle Command (Italian: La battaglia d'Inghilterra), directed by Enzo G. Castellari. "In 1979, much of the footage shot for Eagles Over London appeared in the dire George Peppard film Hell to Victory".
Buchóns, again depicting Bf 109s, made an appearance on the 1980 ABC-network TV sci-fi series Galactica 1980, a short-lived spin-off from the Battlestar Galactica series. The heroes travel back in time in their space Vipers to Earth during the Second World War and encounter the Luftwaffe. The footage of Buchóns consisted of out-takes from the 1969 film Battle of Britain.
One Buchón, which had taxied in The Battle of Britain, flew in the 1988 LWT series Piece of Cake, and was one of three flyable HA-1112s used to depict Bf 109s in the 1990 film Memphis Belle. The Piece of Cake Buchón also appeared in the 1991 ITV television miniseries A Perfect Hero.
A former training airframe that did not appear in the Battle of Britain but which was restored to Bf 109G-10 standard in the early 1990s, and operated by the Old Flying Machine Company, appeared in the 1995 television film Over Here starring Martin Clunes.
Hughes 500 / OH-6 Cayuse / MH-6 Little Bird / MD 500 Defender
A Hughes 500C takes part in the 1973 television film Birds Of Prey, in which a traffic reporter, played by David Janssen, gets into an aerial duel with a gang of bank robbers, who have their own getaway helicopter, an Aérospatiale Lama.
A pair of Hughes 500 helicopters appear in the 1978 film Capricorn One, near the climatic ending where they get entangled with a crop duster biplane.
In the 1980s television series Magnum, P.I., Thomas Magnum's friend and fellow war veteran Theodore Calvin (known as T.C.) flies a civilian Hughes 500D as a tourist charter Island Hoppers business.
Hughes H-4 Hercules ("Spruce Goose")
Also known as the Hercules HK-1 and "The Spruce Goose", this gigantic flying boat has made a number of appearances in fiction. The aircraft was central to the plot of the 1987 Hanna-Barbera animated film Yogi Bear and the Magical Flight of the Spruce Goose.
In the 1988 biopic Tucker: The Man and His Dream, a pivotal meeting between automaker Preston Tucker and Howard Hughes takes place in front of the Hercules, within its hangar, where Hughes briefly tells Tucker that whether the Hercules flies is not the point, as well as how to circumvent the "establishment" and Senator Ferguson.
In the 1991 adventure film The Rocketeer, hero Cliff Secord uses a large-scale model of the Hughes H-4 Hercules to escape some eager federal agents and Howard Hughes himself. After Secord glides the model to safety, Hughes expresses relief that the craft would actually fly.
The production and sole test flight of the H-4 Hercules was depicted in the 2004 Martin Scorsese film The Aviator. A flying large-scale model was used for the film, and it is now displayed next to the original aircraft at the Evergreen Aviation Museum in McMinnville, Oregon.
In the video game L.A. Noire (2011) the player is able to enter the aircraft. Additionally, exterior and interior views of the H-4 Hercules aircraft are featured in the opening introduction of the DLC mission, "Nicholson Electroplating".
The 7 July 1946 maiden flight of the Hughes XF-11 reconnaissance design which ended in a crash in Beverly Hills, California, severely injuring pilot Howard Hughes was depicted in a 1977 made-for-television film, The Amazing Howard Hughes (with a P-38 Lightning standing in for the XF-11), and again in the 2004 Martin Scorsese film, The Aviator, with the aircraft depicted by a mock-up with flight rendered through CGI.
A Grumman J2F Duck was the primary plot device of the 1971 United Artists film Murphy's War, starring Peter O'Toole as the title character. Stunt flying was done by Frank Tallman. The J2F-6 which starred in the film, BuNo 33587, afterwards resided in the Weeks Air Museum in Florida, USA (now the Fantasy of Flight Museum).
Junkers Ju 52/3m
Two Ju 52s appeared in one of the early scenes in the 2008 Second World War film Valkyrie directed by Bryan Singer and starring Tom Cruise. One aircraft was painted in a Luftwaffe scheme, the other in an all-silver finish.
Junkers Ju 87
The 1941 Nazi propaganda film Stukas, produced by Karl Ritter, described the wartime exploits of a squadron of Junkers Ju 87 "Stuka" dive bombers and their pilots during the Invasion of France during World War II.
Kaman SH-2 Seasprite
A Stinson L-5A Sentinel was featured in the 1969 Mike Nichols film Catch-22 as the aircraft that a pilot commits suicide in after accidentally killing another squadron member with his propeller. The title of Joseph Heller's 1961 satirical novel of the same name has entered the lexicon.
The one-of-a-kind Lamson L-106 Alcor pressurized high-altitude research sailplane played a key role in the book Sierra Sierra, by John Joss. In the novel, Marine fighter pilot Mark Lewis saw his best friend, John O'Halloran, killed on the last day of the Vietnam War. When he travels to Seattle, Washington, to explain O'Halloran's death to his family he discovers that O'Halloran's father and sister are engaged in building a research glider, the Alcor, in which O'Halloran was to have set world records for altitude and distance, when he returned from Vietnam. Instead Lewis takes O'Halloran's place in the project, while trying to put his own life back together after the war, flying the Alcor in the mountain wave of the Sierra Nevada.
Lockheed Constellations of Trans World Airlines were depicted in the 2004 Martin Scorsese film The Aviator. The preserved Super Constellation, "Star of America", N6937C, of the Airline History Museum was filmed at San Bernardino International Airport, California, for this Howard Hughes biopic. A fleet of grounded Connies was rendered in CGI.
Lockheed C-141 Starlifter
In Jimmie H. Butler's 1991 novel Red Lightning, Black Thunder, the U.S. deploys a Lockheed C-141 Starlifter out of Hawaii in a mission to launch ASAT missiles against a Soviet network of killer satellites.
The Hainan Island incident was referenced in the television series JAG, in the episode "Dog Robber" during season 7. In this episode based on the real incident, a U.S. Navy Lockheed EP-3 Orion collides in mid-air with a Chinese fighter. The EP-3 crew then make an emergency landing at Fuzhou Airbase in China. The crew and aircraft are detained as in the real incident. A U.S. delegation led by Admiral Thomas Boone flies to Fuzhou Airbase and secures the release of the crew, but the aircraft remains in Chinese custody. Against orders a Navy Lieutenant flies into Chinese airspace and destroys the EP-3 before the Chinese have a chance to study it in detail. This leads to him being court-martialed.
Lockheed Model 12 Electra Junior
A Lockheed Model 12 Electra Junior appeared as the French airliner in the climactic final scene from the 1942 film Casablanca. (The aircraft carries the Air France seahorse logo, although Air France did not operate the type.) A "cut-out" stood in for a real aircraft in many shots.
A vintage flying Lockheed Hudson IV appeared in the Second World War film The Great Raid directed by John Dahl and released in 2005. The film was based on the book by William Breuer. The Hudson now resides in the Temora Aviation Museum in Australia.
Auric Goldfinger's private aircraft in the 1964 James Bond film Goldfinger is a Lockheed L-1329 Jetstar. Although the real aircraft had "Auric Enterprises" on the nose, the model used in some shots did not.
Lockheed L-1011 Tristar
Several Lockheed L-1011 Tristars were depicted in the 1990 action film Die Hard 2, with two large models constructed by Industrial Light and Magic "flown" on wires for the cameras through "storm clouds" made of non-toxic vaporized mineral oil. Filming was done at a remote airstrip in the Mojave Desert in California. Whipped by the Santa Ana winds coming through the Tehachapi Pass into the valley, the smoke effect contributed convincing heavy weather to the shots.
Lockheed T-33 T-Bird
A Lockheed T-33, the trainer version of the Lockheed F-80 Shooting Star, appeared in the 1955 science-fiction film This Island Earth. In one of the early scenes of the movie, the hero scientist Cal (played by Rex Reason) is about to land his T-33 at the desert airfield near his government-owned laboratory when the aircraft becomes ensnared by some unknown alien force. The film achieved renewed fame when it was spoofed in the 1996 comedy Mystery Science Theater 3000: The Movie.
In 1976, Francis Gary Powers' 1970 autobiography, "Operation Overflight: A Memoir of the U-2 Incident", was turned into a television film, Francis Gary Powers: The True Story of the U-2 Spy Incident, with Lee Majors in the role of Powers.
The Lockheed U-2 made an important appearance in the 2000 Beacon Pictures docudrama Thirteen Days as the aircraft that initially detected Soviet missiles being deployed in Cuba in October 1962, and was later shot down, killing pilot Maj. Rudolf Anderson, Jr. (played by Chip Esten), the only combat casualty of the Cuban Missile Crisis.
A Stinson Reliant stood in for Lockheed Vega DL-1 Special, G-ABGK, c/n 155, "Puck", race number 36, in the 1991 Australian mini-series The Great Air Race, about the 1934 London to Melbourne MacRobertson Trophy Air Race. It is also known as Half a World Away.
Messerschmitt Bf 108
Two Messerschmitt Bf 108 Taifuns depicted Messerschmitt Bf 109 fighters in the 1962 film The Longest Day, and the type substituted for unavailable Luftwaffe fighters again in the 1964 film 633 Squadron.
In The Great Escape, James Garner and Donald Pleasance steal a Taifun from a Luftwaffe airbase and attempt to fly to Switzerland in it. This sequence was inspired by the experience of Lt. Bruce Carr, a P-51 Mustang pilot who, while evading capture, came on a Luftwaffe airbase, stole a Focke-Wulf 190, and flew it to England.
Messerschmitt Bf 109
A computer-generated Messerschmitt Bf 109 also appears in the 2002 war film Hart's War which starred Colin Farrell and Bruce Willis and was based on the 1999 novel of the same name by John Katzenbach. In the film, a Bf 109 engages in a dogfight with a P-51 above the POW camp where the film is set and the former is shot down, crashing into one of the camp's guard-posts.
27 Spanish Hispano Aviación HA-1112 M1L 'Buchon' single-engined fighters, Bf 109s built under license in Spain, were used in the 1969 movie Battle of Britain. The Buchons were altered to look more like correct Bf 109Es, adding mock machine guns and cannon, redundant tailplane struts, and removing the rounded wingtips.
Messerschmitt Me 262
The American hard rock band Blue Öyster Cult portrayed a Messerschmitt Me 262A on the cover of their third album Secret Treaties (1974). The album also contains a song, "Me 262", written from the point of view of a Luftwaffe pilot on a bomber interception mission in April 1945.
In the 2000 alternate history novel Fox on the Rhine, by Douglas Niles and Michael Dobson, the Luftwaffe, under Adolf Galland's command, prioritizes the development of the Me 262. A number of squadrons are used to maul a heavy bomber raid in concert with other propeller-based fighters, but worker sabotage of the engines affect their operational performance.
In the second and last issue of the 2001 DC Vertigo miniseries Enemy Ace: War In Heaven, lead character Hans von Hammer leads a Luftwaffe flight against USAAF bomber formations with him piloting a scarlet red Me 262 that has no swastika tail insignia. Seeing the hopelessness of the war, he and his men later destroy the remaining 262s in their control before surrendering to a U.S. Army unit.
As was common in the 1950s, MiGs (presumably −15s, as the story is set in Korea) are portrayed by Republic F-84F Thunderstreaks in the 1958 film The Hunters, about USAF fighter pilots and loosely based on the 1956 novel of the same name by James Salter.
MiGs feature in the 2007 novel Ascent by UK author Jed Mercurio, a fictional work about a Soviet pilot Yefgeni Yeremin covertly flying MiGs during the Korean War. The book was later adapted into a graphic novel in 2011, illustrated by Wesley Robins.
Mil Mi-24 'Hind'
The helicopter is used extensively in the 2005 movie The 9th Company, which fictionally depicts the Battle for Hill 3234 where Soviet Army paratroopers defend their post against Mujahideen fighters. It was especially employed to eliminate the Mujahideen's last wave of attack in the movie's climactic battle.
In the 2006 film Blood Diamond, a Mi-24 is employed to attack a rebel village.
The helicopter is used by the antagonist to flee a Moscow rooftop in the film A Good Day to Die Hard.
The 2007 film Charlie Wilson's War portrays the Mi-24 as used in the Soviet war in Afghanistan. Mujahideen use FIM-92 Stinger missiles supplied through Rep. Charlie Wilson's efforts to shoot down Soviet Mi-24s.
In the 2013 Bruce Willis action film A Good Day to Die Hard, a Mil Mi-26T, leased from the Belarus Ministry for Emergency Situations and painted in washable military camouflage, was used in various scenes.
For the 1991 Australian mini-series The Great Air Race, about the 1934 London to Melbourne MacRobertson Trophy Air Race, also known as Half a World Away, Miles Falcon, VH-AAT, played Miles M.3 Falcon, G-ACTM, the prototype fitted with extra fuel tanks, race number 31.
The Mitsubishi A5M Type 96 fighter, known to the Allies as the 'Claude', features prominently in the Japanese Studio Ghibli animated feature The Wind Rises (2013) directed by Hayao Miyazaki. The film is a semi-fictionalised lyrical portrayal of the famous Japanese aircraft designer Jiro Horikoshi and depicts him designing the A5M in the 1930s.
Moller M400 Skycar
The Moller M400 Skycar was featured in the 2010 made for TV family movie The Jensen Project with LeVar Burton and Kellie Martin. It also appears in Clive Cussler's novel Atlantis Found, where it is flown by Dirk Pitt.
The Morane-Saulnier MS.230 featured as the fictional 'new monoplane' in the 1966 World War I epic The Blue Max and was the aircraft in which the central character Bruno Stachel (George Peppard) meets his demise. Peppard purchased the aircraft and took it back to the U.S. where it joined the collection of the San Diego Aerospace Museum. The plot, which has Stachel wringing-out a new design until it sheds its wings, is based on the experience with the late-war Fokker E.V, a parasol design, three of six of which crashed within a week of being delivered to Jasta 6 in August 1918. Grounded for investigation, the problem was traced to shoddy workmanship at the Mecklenburg factory where defective wood spars, water damage to glued parts, and pins carelessly splintering the members instead of securing them were discovered. Upon return to service two months later, the design was renamed the Fokker D.VIII in an effort to distance type's reputation as a killer.
An authentic Nieuport 28 was provided and flown by Frank Tallman, a Hollywood film pilot, for The Twilight Zone episode "The Last Flight" in which a World War I Royal Flying Corps pilot is transported in time in a cloud to the 1960s. Norton Air Force Base, California, was the filming site. The episode first aired on 5 February 1960.
North American AT-6 Texan
An SNJ-5 Texan, a naval variant of the AT-6, appeared in several television productions. It was modified to play the role of a Japanese Zero in the TV series Baa Baa Black Sheep (1977) and the mini-series Pearl (1979) and it played the roles of both a Zero and an SBD Dauntless in the 1987 mini-series War and Remembrance.
North American BT-9 / BT-16
North American BT-9 and BT-16 basic trainers were filmed at Randolph Field, Texas, for the 1941 Paramount Pictures film I Wanted Wings, based on the novel of the same title by 1st Lt. Beirne Lay, Jr..
North American X-15
On 5 November 1959, a small engine fire forced pilot Scott Crossfield to make an emergency landing on Rosamond Dry Lake, Edwards Air Force Base, California, in a North American X-15. Not designed to land with fuel on board, the X-15 landed with a heavy load of propellants and broke its back, grounding it for three months. Footage of this accident was later incorporated in The Outer Limits episode "The Premonition", first aired 9 January 1965.
The rocket craft is also the subject of the 1961 Essex Productions movie X-15, a fictionalized account of the program, directed by Richard Donner in his first outing, and narrated by USAF Brigadier General (Reserve) James Stewart in an uncredited role.
Paramount Pictures' 1953 film, The War of the Worlds incorporates color footage of a Northrop YB-49 test flight, originally used in one of Paramount's Popular Science theatrical shorts. In the George Pal film, the Flying Wing is used to drop an atomic bomb on the invading Martians.
O-1 Bird Dog
U.S. Navy Curtiss O2C-2 Helldivers from Floyd Bennett Field were used in filming King Kong in 1933, but as Carl Denham observed, "Oh no, it wasn't the airplanes. It was beauty killed the beast." Writer and director Merian C. Cooper, who was shot down in World War I in an Airco DH.4 and made a prisoner of war by the Germans, and who later flew with the Kosciuszko Squadron, portrayed the pilot who kills Kong, while director Ernest B. Schoedsack plays his gunner, in uncredited roles. In the 2005 remake of the film, director Peter Jackson plays one of the gunners while the pilot is portrayed by Rick Baker, who played Kong (in a rubber suit) in the 1976 remake.
In the pilot episode of the Filmways television comedy Green Acres, presented as a "mockumentary", hosted by John Charles Daly, about the life of actor Eddie Albert's character, Oliver Wendell Douglas, his wartime experience as a P-38 Lightning pilot in the U.S. Army Air Force is depicted, with color footage of the 5,000th P-38 built, P-38J-20-LO, 44-23296, painted a bright vermilion and named "YIPPEE", used to supply flight footage (7:01 – 7:55 in the episode).
In the 1992 action movie Aces: Iron Eagle III, the main character, Brig. Gen. Chappy Sinclair, pilots a P-38J as part a mission to field old Second World War airshow aircraft against a drug cartel in Peru. The aircraft, registration N38BP, came from the Planes of Fame museum.
In the 1942 John Wayne film Flying Tigers, real Curtiss P-40 Warhawks are featured. A New York Times critic called the P-40s "the true stars" of the film. Republic Studios also built replicas for the film due to material shortages during the war. These can be identified by the fairings hiding the cylinder heads of the automotive V-8 engines installed in them, and the lack of elevators on the horizontal stabilizer.
Future U.S. President Ronald Reagan appears in the Recognition of the Japanese Zero Fighter (training film, 1942) as a young pilot learning to recognize the difference between a P-40 and a Japanese Zero. In this film Reagan mistakes a friend's P-40 for a Japanese Zero and tries to shoot it down. In the end, Reagan gets a chance to shoot down a real Zero.
In the 1945 film God is My Co-Pilot, based on Robert Lee Scott, Jr's book about the Flying Tigers and the USAAF pilots who replaced them in the Republic of China and Burma, a mix of real P-40 and "film" P-40s are featured.
A P-40E appeared in the 1967 World War II-film Tobruk directed by Arthur Hiller and starring Rock Hudson and George Peppard. The P-40, a Mk 1a Kittyhawk s/n 18796, had formerly served in the RCAF, and later was used in the filming of Tora! Tora! Tora!. The aircraft is now owned by the War Eagles Air Museum in Mexico.
A P-40 featured in the 1973 made-for-TV film Death Race (also known as State of Division) which starred Lloyd Bridges and Doug McClure. The film featured a damaged Allied fighter, unable to take off but still able to taxi, being pursued across North Africa by a German tank. (Not to be confused with the 1975 sci-fi film Death Race 2000.)
Former AVG pilots are involved in the helicopter-chase film Birds of Prey, a 1973 made-for-television movie starring David Janssen. Opening credits run over footage from 1942's Flying Tigers, and a sharkmouthed Warhawk is prominent in opening scenes.
Steve Earle's song "Johnny Come Lately" is about an American P-47 pilot in World War II; it contains a verse "My P-47 is a pretty good ship. She took a round comin' cross the channel last trip."
The Steven Spielberg film Empire of the Sun (1987), based on the J.G. Ballard novel of the same name, featured models and restored Mustangs in an attack against a Japanese internment camp. This was the most complex and elaborately staged sequence of the film, requiring over 10 days of filming and 60 hours of aerial footage of Mustangs. Film historians and reviewers regard the scene as a significant cinematic achievement: "Spielberg's most emotionally reverberant moment, and one of the rare movie scenes that can truly be called epiphanies."
Two P-51Ds appear briefly at the end of Steven Spielberg's 1998 film Saving Private Ryan as "tank-busters" (although P-47 Thunderbolts would have been the more likely type in this role). "Big Beautiful Doll" of the Old Flying Machine Company, Cambridge, England, and "Old Crow" of the Scandinavian Historic Flight were used.
The Royal Air Force's ground attack aircraft, the Panavia Tornado, featured extensively in the television pilot Strike Force, produced in the 1990s for ITV in the UK. Strike Force did not enter series production.
The Transformers character Darkwing disguises itself as a Panavia Tornado.
In the 2002 submarine film Below, the USS Tiger Shark is directed to pick up three survivors of a torpedoed hospital ship by a Consolidated PBY-5A Catalina, marked as AH545, 'WQ-Z' of No. 209 Squadron. The PBY-5A was marked as the Catalina that had a decisive role in the sinking of the German battleship Bismarck.
U.S. Navy PB4Y-2M Privateers of VP-23, based at Naval Air Station Miami, Florida, were filmed at the close of the 1948 hurricane season and the footage used in the 1949 20th Century-Fox film "Slattery's Hurricane".
The most prominent of the real aircraft in Nevil Shute's Round the Bend is a war-surplus Percival Proctor, which is used by the protagonist Constantine Shak Lin (also known as Connie Shaklin) to tour Asia to spread his teachings. At the end of the book the Proctor is the basis of a shrine to Shaklin and his new creed, laid up in a hangar in a state of uncompleted maintenance for pilgrims to view.
In 1968, three Proctors were remodelled with inverted gull wings and other cosmetic alterations to represent Junkers Ju 87s in the film Battle of Britain but, in the event, radio-controlled models were used instead.
A pair of flying replica Pfalz D.IIIs were constructed to appear in the 1966 epic First World War film The Blue Max, based on the novel of the same name by Jack D. Hunter. The aircraft subsequently appeared in Darling Lili (1970) and Von Richthofen & Brown (1971).
The STOL-capable Pilatus Porter was depicted in the 1990 film Air America, loosely recounting the exploits of the Central Intelligence Agency proprietary airline in Southeast Asia in the 1960s and early 1970s.
The character Pussy Galore in the 1964 James Bond film Goldfinger is the leader of "Pussy Galore's Flying Circus", a group of women who fly Piper Cherokees, trained acrobats turned cat burglars, in the novel of the same name by Ian Fleming. In the film the arch-villain uses the Cherokees in his plan to deprive the United States government of the gold in Fort Knox.
In the 1934 screwball comedy It Happened One Night, the foppish bridegroom King Westley arrives at his own wedding "piloting" a Pitcairn Aircraft Company autogyro (although the real pilot can be seen crouching in the cockpit after Westley deplanes).
Royal Aircraft Factory B.E.2
A replica Royal Aircraft Factory B.E.2c was used in the production of the BBC Great War drama series Wings which aired in 1977–1978. The replica was originally commissioned in 1969 by Universal Studios for a proposed big-budget film Biggles Sweeps the Skies but the project was cancelled after the aircraft was built. The replica was constructed by engineer and pilot Charles Boddington who was later killed during the making of the 1971 film Von Richthofen & Brown. His son Matthew recently rebuilt the aircraft (after it was badly damaged in an accidental crash in the United States) and it flew again at Sywell aerodrome, UK, in 2011.
Royal Aircraft Factory S.E.5
A Douglas SBD Dauntless was used in the production of the 1976 motion picture Midway. An SBD-5, which had formerly served in the RNZAF and which was (in 1976) non-airworthy and wingless, was used in the filming of the cockpit close-ups for actors such as Charlton Heston.
Later in 1987, the same aircraft (BuNo 28536), now in airworthy condition, was used in the production of the epic TV mini-series War & Remembrance. The aircraft appeared in the sequence depicting the Battle of Midway and during filming, was flown off the USS Lexington the first time an SBD had taken off from a carrier in 42 years.
SB2C Helldiver / A-25 Shrike
The loss of a U.S. Navy Curtiss SB2C-1 Helldiver, BuNo 00154, of VB-5, during launch near Trinidad on 28 May 1943 during the shakedown cruise of the USS Yorktown was incorporated by 20th Century Fox into the 1944 film Wing and a Prayer: The Story of Carrier X.
Two USAAF Curtiss RA-25A Shrikes collided during a flypast for an air show near Spokane, Washington, on 23 July 1944, the accident filmed by a Paramount Pictures newsreel crew. This footage was used in the 1956 film Earth vs. the Flying Saucers, apparently being shot down by a saucer.
A Short Sunderland flying boat patrol bomber was the setting for much of the novel The Flying Porcupine by Richard Haligon. The novel takes its title from a nickname reputedly given to the Sunderland by German pilots thanks to its defensive armament of as many as 16 machine guns.
Sikorsky SH-3 Sea King
CIA officer Jack Ryan (played by Alec Baldwin) is flown from an aircraft carrier to the submarine USS Dallas in a Sikorsky SH-3H Sea King in the 1990 film Hunt for Red October, based on the Tom Clancy novel of the same title.
At the end of the successful rescue mission for Apollo 13, two SH-3 Sea Kings, historically painted as Helos 66 and 406, retrieve the astronauts from their spacecraft after splashdown in the 1995 Ron Howard film.
Sikorsky H-5 / R-5 / HO2S / HO3S / S-51
The 1954 film The Bridges at Toko-Ri, based on the 1953 James A. Michener novella of the same title, opens and closes with scenes of a U.S. Navy Sikorsky HO3S-1 of utility helicopter squadron HU-1 operating from an Essex-class aircraft carrier in pilot rescue and recovery during the Korean War.
Sikorsky H-19 / Westland Whirlwind
The 1955 Warner Bros. film The McConnell Story, about Capt. Joseph C. McConnell, Jr., the top American ace of the Korean War, includes footage of a Sikorsky H-19 Chickasaw rescuing a downed B-29 crew in that conflict, while under heavy fire. A Chickasaw was furnished by the 48th Air Rescue Squadron, Eglin AFB, Florida, for seven days of filming at Alexandria AFB, Louisiana, in February 1955.
Sikorsky S-51 / Westland Dragonfly
A Westland Widgeon, a UK-built version of the Sikorsky S-51, appears in the 1971 British film When Eight Bells Toll, starring Anthony Hopkins, directed by Étienne Périer and based on the Alistair Maclean novel of the same name. Aerial scenes were filmed over the Scottish islands of Staffa and Mull.
Sikorsky H-53 series
The HH-53C variant was used in the combined combat search and rescue and VIP delivery sequences in the 1982 Malpaso Productions spy and action film Firefox, produced, directed by, and starring Clint Eastwood, based on the 1977 novel of the same name by Craig Thomas.
A CH-53E Super Stallion is featured in the 1997 film The Jackal, where it flies over Washington D.C. and hovers between buildings during a fast rope sequence.
The Sikorsky MH-53J is featured in the 2007 Transformers film as the alternate mode of Blackout. Production designer Jeff Mann stated "the Pave Low looks butch... the size made it the logical choice." Toys for Blackout were MH-53 replicas, which were reused for the characters of Evac, Spinister and Whirl.
Sikorsky CH-54 Tarhe/Sikorsky S-64
A Skycrane also appears in the 2001 film Swordfish, near the climactic ending in which it has a bus full of hostages slung loaded underneath, and is flying through downtown Los Angeles.
Sikorsky H-60 series
The Sikorsky UH-60 Black Hawk was the title aircraft in the film Black Hawk Down. Film makers paid the U.S. Department of Defense about $3 million to ship eight helicopters and about 100 crew members to the film location in Morocco.
Black Hawks were also featured in the film Air Force One, again having been rented from the U.S. military.
When MGM produced the 1959 film The Gallant Hours, based on the life of U.S. Navy Admiral William "Bull" Halsey, the studio rented a Sikorsky VS-44A, N41881, named "Mother Goose", from Catalina Air Lines, Inc., and painted it in wartime camouflage to depict a secret flight that Halsey had made to the South Pacific in a Consolidated PB2Y-1 Coronado. Although the studio had promised to repaint the flying boat after the production, this did not happen, and the airline had to restore the civilian livery itself.
Sopwith Camels feature in the 2013 novel A Splendid Little War by Derek Robinson which depicts a fictional RAF unit – Merlin Squadron – flying Camels in support of the White forces during the Russian Civil War in 1919.
Sopwith 1½ Strutter
A 1/6 scale radio-controlled model of a Sopwith 1½ Strutter was constructed by Proctor Enterprises to appear in the ABC television series The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles episode "Attack of the Hawkmen" (1995) produced by George Lucas.
Space Shuttle orbiter
The Transformers Combaticon named Blast Off, the Autobot Sky Lynx, and triple-changer Astrotrain all disguise themselves as Space Shuttle orbiters.
In Payne Harrison's 1990 novel Storming Intrepid, the shuttle Intrepid – one of four new shuttles built by the U.S. government – is hijacked by its mission commander, who is a Russian agent. The plot revolves around American efforts to prevent the agent from landing the shuttle in the USSR with its advanced SDI system intact.
Although retired from service for over a decade, the SR-71 Blackbird appears in the form of the character Jetfire, an over-the-hill Transformer near the end of its days, in the 2009 film Transformers: Revenge of the Fallen and its toy line.
In Payne Harrison's 1990 novel Storming Intrepid, the U.S. deploys an SR-71 over the USSR on an ELINT mission to record communications between the hijacked shuttle Intrepid and Soviet commanders on the ground. The Soviet air defenses attempt to shoot down the aircraft as it tries to get out of Soviet airspace. The aircraft briefly flames out, but successfully recovers and narrowly escapes a missile trap by MiG-31 interceptors.
The 1976 film Aces High uses several modified Stampe SV.4 aircraft made to look like Royal Flying Corps Royal Aircraft Factory S.E.5 aircraft. These were prepared by Bianchi Aviation Film Services and flown by well-known pilots including Neil Williams.
The Supermarine Attacker appears in two flying sequences in the 1952 film The Sound Barrier (released in the U.S. as Breaking the Sound Barrier), directed by David Lean and starring Nigel Patrick and Ralph Richardson. The aerial footage was filmed by Jack Hildyard.
The 1951 film Malta Story centered around Spitfires and their pilots defending Malta in 1942.
A clipped-wing Spitfire features in the opening sequence of David Lean's 1952 film The Sound Barrier (released in the U.S. as Breaking the Sound Barrier). In the scene, which takes place over Dover in 1945, the Spitfire's pilot Philip Peel (John Justin) dives his aircraft at such a high speed, that he encounters a 'barrier' of dense air, causing such severe buffeting that he almost loses control of his machine.
British writer Elleston Trevor's best-selling 1955 novel Squadron Airborne depicted a fictional RAF squadron flying Spitfires at the height of the Battle of Britain in 1940. The more recent novel Band of Eagles (2007) by Frank Barnard featured Spitfires engaged in the defence of Malta in 1941.
A Spitfire IXc was one of at least two used in the production of the 1962 World War II epic film The Longest Day. The same aircraft also appeared in Von Ryan's Express (1965), Night of the Generals (1967), and Battle of Britain (1969).
The Spitfire was a central part of the 1969 Guy Hamilton-directed film Battle of Britain, a fictionalized account of the real Battle of Britain that one critic called "the definitive depiction of war in the air". The film led to an increase in the popularity of the aircraft among collectors of warbirds. According to one property dealer the appearance "did for Spitfires what the James Bond films did for the Aston Martin." Producers secured 35 Spitfires for use in the film.
A Spitfire Mk. IXc (MH434/G-ASJV) depicted an aerial reconnaissance variant in A Bridge Too Far.
The Spitfire was also the main aircraft used in the 1988 television series Piece of Cake. The series was based on a novel by the same name. Pilots in the novel flew the Hawker Hurricane, but the lack of airworthy Hurricanes forced the producers to change aircraft types, using five privately owned airworthy Spitfires and a collection of static and taxiing replicas.
The 2001 Czech film Dark Blue World, a World War II drama about Czech pilots who flew with the Royal Air Force and directed by Jan Svěrák, featured Spitfires. The vintage Spitfires cost the film-makers US$7,500 an hour to use. The aerial sequences were a combination of live aerial footage, CGI and out-takes from the 1969 film The Battle of Britain.
Spitfires starred in the 2006 seven-minute short film/commercial Pilots produced by the Swiss-German watch manufacturer IWC Schaffhausen to promote its Big Pilot's Watch Collection. John Malkovich featured in the film.
A Spitfire features in the 2011 animated short film Paths of Hate by Polish film-maker Damian Nenow, a war and supernatural horror film in which two fighter pilots fight a vicious duel to the death. The film was nominated for best short film at the 2012 Academy Awards.
UFM Easy Riser
The UFM Easy Riser was one of two ultralight aircraft that lead the Canada geese south in the 1996 film Fly Away Home. The film was a highly fictionalized account based on Bill Lishman's autobiography and work with Operation Migration, but both Lishman's real-life migratory experiments teaching birds to migrate and the film used the Easy Riser, due to its low cruising speed, which allowed the birds to pace the aircraft in flight.
In the 1934 Warner Bros. film Here Comes the Navy, directed by Lloyd Bacon, the first of nine movies in which James Cagney and Pat O'Brien appeared together, the U.S. Navy dirigible USS Macon (ZRS-5) is shown late in the production after Cagney's character transfers to a lighter-than-air unit after a falling out with his shipmates aboard the USS Arizona.
Vickers FB5 Gunbus
A replica Vickers FB5 was constructed to appear in the 1986 movie Sky Bandits (also released under the title Gunbus) which was about a pair of cowboys who flee the U.S. to escape prison for a bank robbery and end up serving in the RFC during the Great War. The replica, built as a taxiing prop for the film, is currently housed at Sywell Aerodrome in the UK.
A haunted Vickers Wellington is the subject of Robert Westall's macabre, and critically appreciated, short story Blackham's Wimpy.
Popular Irish graphic novelist Garth Ennis chose the Wellington to be the aircraft flown by the Australian crew of RAF Bomber Command in his 2010 graphic novel Happy Valley, set in 1942 during the early phase of the night bombing offensive and one of his successful Battlefields series.
Two Bell-Boeing CV-22 Ospreys (of only three in the USAF inventory at the time) were filmed in flight at Holloman Air Force Base, New Mexico, in May 2006 for the 2007 Transformers film. This would inspire a host of Transformers toys and characters based on the Osprey including the Decepticons Incinerator and Ruination as well as the Autobots Springer and Blades.
The 2011 movie Transformers: Dark of the Moon features the CV-22 Osprey.
Developed in the 1960s by former RAF Wing Commander Ken Wallis, the Wallis WA-116 Agile was an improved, more stable autogyro design. Following a prototype, five WA-116s were built by Beagle Aircraft at Shoreham, three of which were for evaluation by the British Army Air Corps. In 1966, one of the Beagle-built WA-116s, registered G-ARZB, was modified for use in the James Bond film You Only Live Twice, dubbed "Little Nellie" and flown by Wallis, doubling for Sean Connery's 007.
The Wright brothers' Wright Flyer is featured in the Season Seven episode of The Simpsons "Sideshow Bob's Last Gleaming". In the episode, first aired 26 November 1995, Sideshow Bob steals the Flyer, which is on loan from the Smithsonian Institution, while it is on display at an airshow. He then flies it into a shack from which Krusty the Clown is making a television broadcast in order to put Krusty off the air; however, instead of demolishing the building the frail Flyer merely bounces off the wall undamaged.
Wright Model B
Several replicas of the Wright Model B were constructed for the filming of the 1978 TV movie The Winds of Kitty Hawk. One of the replicas is now owned and preserved by Wright B Flyers Inc. based in Dayton, Ohio.
The Martin XB-51 depicted the fictional Gilbert XF-120 in the 1956 film Toward the Unknown, starring William Holden as a test pilot. On 25 March 1956, the first XB-51 prototype, 46-0685, crashed in sand dunes near Biggs Air Force Base, El Paso, Texas, killing both crew, while staging to Eglin AFB, Florida, for filming of scenes for the motion picture.
The 1971 British film Zeppelin, set during World War I, features a new prototype airship.
- List of fictional spacecraft
- Airborne aircraft carrier
- Land mobile aircraft carrier
- G-BDXJ a retired Boeing 747 used for film and television work.
- Copp, DeWitt S. A Few Great Captains: The Men and Events That Shaped the Development of U.S. Air Power. The Air Force Historical Foundation. Garden City, New York: Doubleday & Company, Inc. p. 7. ISBN 0-385-13310-3. LCCN 78-22310.
- Suid (2002), p. 16.
- Wohl (2005), p. 112.
- Wohl (2005), p. 113.
- Wohl (2005), p. 114.
- "List of aviation films (U to Z)". Aerofiles.com. Archived from the original on 10 January 2010. Retrieved 16 January 2010.
- Wohl (2005), p. 117.
- Turner Classic Movies (2010). "Wings (1927) – Notes on the production". Retrieved 17 January 2010.
- Wohl (2005), p. 115.
- Dirks, Tim (2009). "List of Academy Award winners for Best Picture". AMC Filmsite. Archived from the original on 10 January 2010. Retrieved 16 January 2010.
- Wohl (2005), p. 93, 109.
- Wohl (2005), p. 109.
- Wohl (2005), pp. 109–112.
- Osborn, Bob. "Tullio Crali: the Ultimate Futurist Aeropainter". Simultaneita.net. Archived from the original on 7 February 2010. Retrieved 17 January 2010.
- Wohl (2005), p. 56.
- McElwee, Sean (6 May 2013). "'Man of Steel': Pentagon Propaganda Flick". Salon. Retrieved 11 June 2016.
- Cram, Marshall (2015). "Military Aviation Movie List". Coastal Computers. Retrieved 11 June 2016.
- "Douglas A-1 Skyraider". How It Flies. 2016. Retrieved 11 June 2016.
- Cirucci, Johnny (29 March 2004). "We Were Soldiers (2002)". johnnycirucci.com. Retrieved 11 June 2016.
- Lamar, Jacob (24 November 1986). "The Pentagon Goes Hollywood". TIME. Retrieved 17 January 2010. (subscription required (. ))
- Halloran, Richard (31 August 1986). "Pentagon can shoot down film details". The New York Times. Retrieved 19 January 2010.
- Vaughn, Cliff (30 May 2002). "The Sum of All Fears". Ethics Daily. Archived from the original on 6 January 2010. Retrieved 26 January 2010.
- Canby, Vincent (18 January 1991). "Technology Is the Star Of 'Intruder'". The New York Times. Retrieved 11 June 2016.
- "Transformers Universe Ultra Class – PowerGlide". Toys'R'Us. 2010. Archived from the original on 21 February 2010. Retrieved 23 February 2010.
- "U.N. Squadron". Giant Bomb. 2016. Retrieved 4 October 2016.
- Farabi, Yasir. "Courage Under Fire – Synopsis". Internet Movie Database. Retrieved 11 June 2016.
- Winkelspecht, Dean (15 May 2006). "HD DVD review of Jarhead". DVDTOWN.com. Archived from the original on 8 August 2007. Retrieved 11 June 2016.
- Yee, Benson (2008). "Transformers Universe 2.0 Toy Review: Powerglide". Ben's World of Transformers. Archived from the original on 1 February 2010. Retrieved 19 January 2010.
- Hasbro (2008). "Spring 2008 Toys R Us Exclusives". Archived from the original on 1 May 2008. Retrieved 8 December 2009.
- Axe, David. "A-10 = Terminator-Killer". War is Boring. Archived from the original on 14 July 2014. Retrieved 13 July 2014.
- FSR Staff. "Terminator Salvation: 20 Things We Didn't like, 10 We Did". Film School Rejects. Retrieved 13 July 2014.
- Chitwood, Scott (30 May 2013). "From the Set of Man of Steel". SuperHeroHype.com. Retrieved 11 June 2016.
- Hagedorn, Dan (1994). Foreign Invaders: The Douglas Invader in Foreign Military and U.S. Clandestine Service. Voyageur Press. ISBN 978-1-85780-013-5.
- Farmer, James H. (February 1990). "The Making of 'Always'". Air Classics. 26 (2).
- "Steve Hinton". IMDb. Retrieved 11 June 2016.
- "Dennis Lynch". IMDb. Retrieved 11 June 2016.
- Cotta Vaz & Duignan (1996), p. 42.
- "Star Quality". Air & Space. 1 September 2006. Retrieved 11 January 2010.
- Persall, Steve (27 May 2001). "More romance than history". St. Petersburg Times. Retrieved 11 January 2010.
- Wilonsky, Robert (24 May 2001). "Bora! Bora! Bora!". Houston Press. Retrieved 11 January 2010.
- Murray, Joe (11 June 1990). "Texas Air Museum Takes Shape". Sarasota Herald-Tribune. p. 11A. Retrieved 11 January 2010.
- "Trivia for Midway (1976)". Turner Classic Movies. Retrieved 11 June 2016.
- "Downloads:Tora Tora Tora Aircraft List". Warbird Information Exchange. Retrieved 11 June 2016.
- "Tora, Tora, Tora! I Saw Pearl Harbor Bombed in '69". December7.com. Archived from the original on 2 February 2014.
- O'Leary, Michael. "Touch of Magic". Warbirds International. 31 (July/August 2012): 37–38.
- Sunshine, Linda; Felix, Antonia, eds. (2001). Pearl Harbor: The Movie and the Moment. New York: Hyperion. ISBN 978-0-78686-7-806.
- Lee, Maggie (12 April 2014). "'The Eternal Zero' Review: A Wrenching Account of a Kamikaze Pilot". Variety. Retrieved 5 January 2015.
- "Adam Aircraft Announces A500 Aircraft Featured in 'Miami Vice,' the Movie". Business Wire. 5 July 2006. Retrieved 11 June 2016.
- "License to Kill". Rotary Action. Retrieved 14 June 2014.
- "Blue Thunder". Rotary Action. Retrieved 11 June 2016.
- "Deadly Encounter". Rotary Action. Retrieved 11 June 2016.
- Decker, Nathan. "Rambo 3". Rotary Action. Retrieved 2 January 2012.
- "Films – R". Rotary Action. Retrieved 2 January 2012.
- Tsaganas, Costas. "Red Dawn". Rotary Action. Retrieved 2 January 2012.
- "Films – J". Rotary Action. Retrieved 20 May 2014.
- "Reign of Fire". Rotary Action. Retrieved 20 May 2014.
- "Skyfall". The Official James Bond 007 Website. Retrieved 8 February 2013.
- "James Bond battles AgustaWestland Merlin helicopter in new Skyfall movie". Western Gazette. Yeovil. 18 October 2012. Retrieved 1 November 2012.
- "Films – F". Rotary Action. Retrieved 9 March 2014.
- Bellomo (2007), p. 197.
- "Gunship". Moby Games. Retrieved 9 January 2011.
- "Films – T". Rotary Action. 2011. Retrieved 20 September 2011.
- Sheftick, Gary; Pritchartt, Grafton (7 August 2009). "Soldiers Who Helped Film 'GI Joe' Now In Combat Theater". U.S. Army News. Retrieved 16 July 2011.
- "Films – I". Rotary Action. 2013. Retrieved 24 January 2013.
- "Hotspur, Hamlicar, Horsa, Hadrian & Hengist". D-Day Battlefield Normandy. Retrieved 20 May 2010.
- Hurst, Flt. Lt. K. J. (July 1977). "Talkback column: DC-3 Project Officer for the film". Air International. 13 (1): 33–34.
- "Deal With the Devil". Newsweek. 23 September 2005. Archived from the original on 29 May 2006. Retrieved 8 December 2007.
- Kurapov, Herman A. (April 2006). "Strategic Airlifters: a Comprehensive Comparison between the Boeing C-17 and the Antonov An-124-100". Canadian American Strategic Review. Archived from the original on 15 March 2010.
- "Carvair in Goldfinger". Aerospaceweb.org. 13 January 2002. Retrieved 11 March 2013.
- "Aces High (1976) – Goofs". IMDb. Retrieved 11 June 2016.
- "Aces High (1976)". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved 28 May 2012.
- "Lewis Gilbert, Douglas Bader's film biographer". Aeroplane. 38 (9): 28. September 2010.
- Reid, Bill. "Avro Anson Project". Classic Wings. Blenheim, New Zealand: Classic Wings Downunder. 11, No. 2 (45): 22–25.
- Beaty, David (1959). Cone of Silence. New York: Morrow.
- "Cone of Silence (1960)". IMDb. January 2000. Retrieved 9 February 2010.
- "Conspiracy of Silence". Flight. 77 (2668): 610. 29 April 1960. Retrieved 11 June 2016.
- Wyatt, Daniel (1990). The Last Flight of the Arrow. Random House of Canada. ISBN 9780345365941.
- "The Arrow: Awards". IMDb. Retrieved 25 September 2010.
- Deighton, Len (1978). Bomber: Events Relating to the Last Flight of an RAF Bomber Over Germany on the Night of June 31st, 1943. HarperCollins UK. ISBN 978-0-586-04544-2.
- Nicoll, Benjamin. "The Lancaster Centre". Mangalore Airport, Australia. Retrieved 8 February 2013.
- "Lancaster Movie and TV Appearance Credits". Lancaster Archive. Retrieved 8 February 2013.
- Gilchrist, Jim (16 May 2008). "A dam good show". The Scotsman. Edinburgh. Retrieved 6 February 2010.
- "Lincolnshire's Lancaster's – NX611 & PA474". On Target Aviation. Retrieved 8 February 2013.
- Norfolk, Pam (10 March 2011). "Book review: Dambuster by Robert Radcliffe". Bridlington Free Press. Retrieved 8 February 2013.
- "Map of the Human Heart". Flicks.co.nz. 30 November 1992. Retrieved 8 February 2013.
- "Bomber Command Museum Newsletter". Bomber Command Museum of Canada. Retrieved 8 February 2013.
- Burns, Stuart; Page, Lewis (1 July 2015). "Goodbye Vulcan: Blighty's nuclear bomber retires for the last time". The Register. Retrieved 2 July 2015.
- McIntee, David (2005). Beautiful Monsters: The Unofficial and Unauthorized Guide to the Alien and Predator Films. Telos Publishing Limited. p. 10. ISBN 978-1-903889-94-7.
- "Hyperdrive (TV series)". TV Tropes. Retrieved 27 October 2010.
- Lezard, Nicholas (18 April 2009). "Jolly good show". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 8 February 2013.
- Bellomo (2007), p. 194.
- Moore, Roger (July 2009). "Movie Review: Transformers: Revenge of the Fallen". The Charlotte Observer. Archived from the original on 11 December 2013.
- Seelye, Katharine (10 June 2002). "When Hollywood's Big Guns Come Right From the Source". The New York Times. Retrieved 17 January 2010.
- "FAQ for Cloverfield". imbd.com. Retrieved 2 August 2016.
- Kilday, Gregg (26 October 1990). "Final Mission". Entertainment Weekly (37). Retrieved 11 January 2010.
- Bowman, Martin (1995). Spirits in the Sky: Classic Aircraft of World War II. Greenwich Editions. p. 11. ISBN 978-0-86288-080-4.
- Bowers, Peter M. (1976). Fortress in the Sky. Sentry Books Inc. p. 236. ISBN 978-0-913194-04-1.
- "Flying Fortress (1942)". Aero Vintage Books. September 2009. Retrieved 30 April 2010.
- "Aviation Films – B". Aerofiles. Retrieved 8 May 2010.
- "Air Force (1943)". Aero Vintage Books. November 2009. Retrieved 30 April 2010.
- "The Best Years of Our Lives (1946)". Aero Vintage Books. July 2006. Retrieved 30 April 2010.
- "Twelve O'Clock High (1949)". Aero Vintage Books. June 2008. Retrieved 11 January 2010.
- "Twelve O'Clock High". Turner Classic Movies. Retrieved 6 February 2010.
- "Famous stunt flyer dies in film crash". Montreal Gazette. 9 July 1965. p. 35. Retrieved 6 February 2010.
- "Command Decision (1948)". Aero Vintage Books. June 2008. Retrieved 30 April 2010.
- "Photos: Filming "The Glenn Miller Story" in Denver". The Denver Post. 28 February 2012. Retrieved 12 February 2014.
- Hardwick & Schnepf (1989), p. 66.
- "Lady Takes a Flyer (1958)". Aero Vintage Books. January 2009. Retrieved 30 April 2010.
- Caiden, Martin (1964). Everything But The Flak. New York: Dwell Sloan & Pierce.
- "Thunderball (1965)". Aero Vintage Books. October 2009. Retrieved 30 April 2010.
- "The 1000 Plane Raid (1969)". Aero Vintage Books. March 2008. Retrieved 30 April 2010.
- "MacArthur (1977)". Aero Vintage Books. July 2009. Retrieved 30 April 2010.
- Suid (2002), pp. 277 & 297.
- Facos, James (1995). The Silver Lady. Thorndike Press. ISBN 978-0-7862-0488-5.
- Gilman, J. D.; Clive, John (1977). KG 200. New York: Simon & Schuster. p. 314. ISBN 978-0-67122-890-3.
- "B-17 B24 – A Real Good War". B17sam.com. 8 September 1944. Archived from the original on 12 October 2013. Retrieved 9 July 2012.
- Guilfoyle, Lizzie. "Books – Under An English Heaven, Robert Radcliffe". Indielondon.co.uk. Retrieved 9 July 2012.
- Dunnell, Ben (April 2012). ""Pink Lady's" last role". Classic Aircraft. Stamford, Lincolnshire, UK: Key Publishing Ltd.: 22–23.
- "2007 B-25 News". Aero Vintage Books. Retrieved 6 August 2012.
- Chang, Justin (1 December 2014). "Film Review: 'Unbroken'". Variety. Retrieved 11 June 2016.
- Dolan, Edward F. (1985). Hollywood Goes to War. London, UK: Bison Books. ISBN 978-0-86124-229-0.
- Clarkson, Wensley (2004). Mel Gibson: Man on a Mission. London, UK: Blake Publishing. ISBN 978-1-85782-537-4.
- Snow, Richard (25 May 2001). "Pearl Harbor: How Real Is It?". Forbes. Retrieved 19 January 2010.
- "'The Twilight Zone' King Nine Will Not Return (TV Episode 1960)". IMDb. Retrieved 11 June 2016.
- "B-25J-30/32-NC (TB-25N) Mitchell Serial Number 44-31504". Pacific Wrecks. Retrieved 29 October 2012.
- "Aviation Films – S". Aerofiles. Retrieved 8 May 2010.
- Farmer, James H. (December 1972). "The Catch-22 Air Force". Air Classics. 8 (14).
- "North American B-25J-20NC (TB-25N) Mitchell Carol Jean". National Air and Space Museum. Retrieved 28 January 2012.
- Warner, Kara (24 March 2011). "'Sucker Punch' Stars Take A Journey 'Into Zack Snyder's Mind'". MTV.com. Retrieved 11 June 2016.
- Darlington, Roger (2015). "Aviation Films". rogerdarlington.co.uk. Retrieved 11 June 2016.
- Lifton, Robert; Mitchell, Greg (30 July 1995). "Hiroshima Films: Always a Political Fallout". The New York Times. Retrieved 19 January 2010.
- Wilford, John (23 October 1983). "Ingredients of 'The Right Stuff'". The New York Times. Retrieved 6 February 2010.
- "The Last Flight of Noah's Ark – Disney DVD Review". Ultimate Disney. August 2004. Retrieved 22 August 2011.
- "Aviation Films – A". Aerofiles. Retrieved 8 May 2010.
- Erickson, Glenn (22 May 2007). "DVD Savant Review: Hell and High Water". DVDtalk.com. Retrieved 26 October 2012.
- "USAF, Paramount combine to shoot difficult scene". St. Petersburg Times. 24 March 1954. Retrieved 6 February 2010.
- "Strategic Air Command". Global Security.org. 2016. Retrieved 11 June 2016.
- Jenkins, Claude F. (15 September 1955). "'On the Threshold of Space': Crew Will Begin Shooting Movie Film in Area Today". Playground News. 9 (85). Fort Walton Beach, Florida. p. 1.
- "Movie Crew Shoots Scenes in the Area". Playground News. 9 (86). Fort Walton Beach, Florida. 22 September 1955. p. 1.
- Turner Classic Movies (2010). "Bombers B-52 (1957)". Retrieved 30 April 2010.
- "A Gathering of Eagles (1963)". IMDb. Retrieved 11 June 2016.
- Southern, Terry (2009). "Checkup with Dr. Strangelove". Archived from the original on 1 February 2010. Retrieved 11 January 2010.
- "Sick SAC". TIME. 26 July 1963. Retrieved 15 February 2010. (subscription required (. ))
- Tucker, Ken (8 June 1990). "By Dawn's Early Light". Entertainment Weekly (17). Retrieved 11 January 2010.
- "The Alaskan Incident: Chris Rudge". Amazon.com. 17 May 2013. Retrieved 1 June 2013.
- "Aviation Films – I". Aerofiles. Retrieved 8 May 2010.
- "Civilian Aircraft: Lucky Linda". TV Acres.com. Retrieved 11 June 2016.
- Rhodes, Joey; Rodriguez, Danny (2003). "The New Whirlybirds". Archived from the original on 16 April 2009. Retrieved 17 January 2010.
- Storey, Don (2008). "Chopper Squad". Classic Australian TV. Archived from the original on 25 January 2010. Retrieved 17 January 2010.
- "Our History". National Helicopter Service. 2016. Retrieved 11 June 2016.
- "Bell Helicopters". Helicopter History Site. 2016. Retrieved 11 June 2016.
- "Biography of Arthur Middleton Young" (PDF). Academy of Model Aeronautics. 2010. Retrieved 11 June 2016.
- "Air and Aircraft: Bell 47". California Science Center. Archived from the original on 12 November 2013. Retrieved 17 January 2010.
- "Films – A". Rotary Action. Retrieved 31 July 2015.
- "Films – D". Rotary Action. 2010. Retrieved 19 May 2010.
- "Films – S". Rotary Action. 2010. Retrieved 13 August 2010.
- "Airwolf". Rotary Action. Retrieved 11 June 2016.
- "Films – H". Rotary Action. 2010. Retrieved 19 May 2010.
- "Films – C". Rotary Action. Retrieved 11 June 2016.
- "Mission Impossible III". Rotary Action. Retrieved 14 May 2014.
- Galloway, Joseph (February 2002). "Hollywood gets Vietnam right this time". VFW Magazine. Retrieved 17 January 2010.
- Shaughnessy, Larry (27 February 2007). "Vietnam hero on film gets highest honor for valor". CNN. Retrieved 17 January 2010.
- "Georgia National Guard is in the Movies". Georgia Department of Defense. 2 March 2001. Archived from the original on 21 July 2011. Retrieved 17 January 2010.
- Smith, Julian (1975). Looking Away: Hollywood and Vietnam (1st ed.). New York: Scribner. ISBN 978-0-684-13954-8. Retrieved 2 June 2014.
- "Bell UH-1 "Huey"". U.S. Centennial of Flight Commission. Archived from the original on 27 May 2010. Retrieved 2 July 2010.
- "ASN Wikibase Occurrence # 75326". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 11 June 2016.
- "Films – M". Rotary Action. Retrieved 11 June 2016.
- "Cliffhanger". Rotary Action. Retrieved 14 May 2014.
- Wilford, John Noble (16 October 1983). "'The Right Stuff': From Space To The Screen". The New York Times. Retrieved 19 January 2010.
- "X-Planes -- from X-1 to X-34". ais.org. Retrieved 13 January 2016.
- Shintani, Kaoru. Area 88 Vol. 4. Shonen Sunday Wide Comics, 1990.
- Area 88, TV Series. Group TAC, 2004.
- Sherman, Stephen (23 July 2011). "Boeing Model 247 – The first modern airliner". Acepilots.com. Retrieved 9 February 2014.
- Hooks, Mike (February 2014). "Q&A". Aeroplane. 42 (490): 62.
- Murray, Scott (1996). Australia on the Small Screen 1970–1995. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 203. ISBN 9780195539493.
- Follett, Ken. "Night Over Water – official website". ken-follett.com. Retrieved 14 January 2010.
- "Accident description – Boeing 707-349C". Aviation Safety Network. March 1989. Retrieved 8 May 2010.
- "'The President's Plane Is Missing' – Boeing 720-1972". Air China Cathay Pacific. Retrieved 19 May 2014.
- "President's Plane Is Missing, The (1973) – Overview". TCM.com. 30 March 2013. Retrieved 19 May 2014.
- Cotta Vaz & Duignan (1996), p. 149.
- Berardinelli, James (2012). "Eraser". Reelviews. Archived from the original on 6 September 2015. Retrieved 26 March 2012.
- Hay, Jerry M. (2008). Ohio River Guidebook. Inland Waterways Books. p. 166. ISBN 978-1-60585-217-1.
- Ortega, Sergio (1 January 2005). "Airport 1975 (Movie review)". Airodyssey.net.
- "Airport 77 (1977)". Moviepooper.com. Retrieved 8 September 2012.
- "Murder on Flight 502 (1975)". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved 14 January 2012.
- Cotta Vaz & Duignan (1996), pp. 148–151.
- Kemper, Bob (8 September 1996). "The Military And the Movies". Daily Press. Newport News, Virginia. p. 2. Retrieved 11 January 2010.
- Larson, Gary (1 November 1997). "The Making of Air Force One". Air & Space/Smithsonian. Retrieved 11 January 2010.
- Maslin, Janet (25 July 1997). "Just a Little Turbulence, Mr. President". The New York Times. Retrieved 16 January 2010.
- Evans, Tim (September 2011). "Snakes On A Plane". BSkyB. Retrieved 1 September 2011.
- Gutierrez, Lisa (May 2006). "Snakes on a Plane". Seattle Times. Archived from the original on 22 October 2012. Retrieved 14 September 2011.
- Matthews, Jack (August 2006). "Hiss-terical Stuff!". New York Daily News. Retrieved 2 September 2011.
- I-Insan Multimedia Sdn Bhd. "Warm Bodies". Cinema Malaysia. Archived from the original on 26 January 2013. Retrieved 16 April 2013.
- Keogh, Tom. "'Warm Bodies': a zombie love story with a pulse". The Seattle Times. Archived from the original on 13 October 2013. Retrieved 16 April 2013.
- Thompson, Paul. "Texts On a Plane! Liam Neeson's Hijacking Thriller "Non–Stop"". Flightclub. Retrieved 28 April 2015.
- Wallace, Daniel (2006). The Art of Superman Returns. San Francisco: Chronicle Books. pp. 33, 36. ISBN 0-8118-5344-6.
- "EAA Sport Aviation – July 2009". Sportaviationonline.org. 22 June 2009. Archived from the original on 12 October 2013. Retrieved 30 July 2012.
- "Stearman Model 75". Planes of Fame. Retrieved 30 July 2012.
- Editors, Air Classics, Challenge Publications, Canoga Park, California, July 1972, Volume 8, Number 8, p. 39.
- Glasser, Paul (12 January 2007). "Battler Briton – Comic Review". Armchair General. Retrieved 6 March 2013.
- "Bristol Blenheim". Globio Travel. Archived from the original on 13 October 2013. Retrieved 17 July 2012.
- "Aviation Information and History". Aviation Gifts.org.uk. Archived from the original on 6 August 2013. Retrieved 24 July 2012.
- Lezard, Nicholas (4 November 2001). "Review: Hornet's Sting by Derek Robinson". The Guardian. London, UK. Retrieved 17 August 2012.
- "Titan Reviews: Charley's War: Hitler's Youth (HC)". Comic Attack.net. 14 December 2011. Retrieved 28 December 2012.
- Mills, Pat; Colquhoun, Joe (2011). Charley's War: (Volume 8) – Hitler's Youth. London, UK: Titan Books. p. 32.
- "Bristol Type 170 Freighter & Wayfarer". Gloucestershire Transport History. Retrieved 18 July 2012.
- "Trivia for The Great Escape (1963)". IMDb. Retrieved 6 February 2010.
- "Full Synopsis for 'The Great Escape (1963)'". Turner Classic Movies. Retrieved 6 February 2010.
- "Sci-Fi Sunday: The Thing From Another World!". Bananalogic. 5 December 2010. Retrieved 11 June 2016.
- Provan, John; Davies, Ronald Edward George (1998). Berlin Airlift The Effort and the Aircraft. p. 64. ISBN 978-1-88896-205-5.
- "USAF Serial Number Search Results – Description Criteria: Globemaster". Aircraft Serial Number Search. May 2010. Retrieved 8 May 2010.
- "Aviation Films – F". Aerofiles. Archived from the original on 14 April 2010. Retrieved 8 May 2010.
- Leeuw, Ruud. "Fairchild C-119F "Boxcar" N3267U". Aviation History & Photography. Retrieved 11 June 2016.
- "1946–1948 USAAF Serial Numbers". joebaugher.com. Retrieved 11 June 2016.
- Sweetman, Bill (1 May 2003). "How the 747 Got Its Hump". Air & Space/Smithsonian. Retrieved 11 June 2016.
- "Old Wings – Con Air C-123 Providers". Old Wings. Retrieved 10 October 2012.
- Cotta Vaz & Duignan (1996), p. 182.
- James Bond MultiMedia. "Hercules". Retrieved 19 May 2010.
- Kruzel, John J. (29 July 2007). "Servicemembers Get Sneak Preview of 'Transformers'". U.S. Department of Defense. Archived from the original on 15 April 2015. Retrieved 11 June 2016.
- Sarto, Dan (3 April 2013). "More VFX than Meets the Eye in Olympus Has Fallen". Animation World Network. Retrieved 30 June 2013.
- "Lone Survivor". Image Engine. Retrieved 16 November 2014.
- "Image Preview". Newspix. 1 June 1999. Retrieved 20 July 2012.
- Ford, Daniel (November 2009). "Flying Tiger films, past and possible". Warbird Forum. Retrieved 11 May 2010.
- Foundas, Scott (29 August 2013). "'The Wind Rises' Review: Hayao Miyazaki's Haunting Epic". Variety. Retrieved 15 January 2014.
- Chapman & Goodall (1992), p. 185.
- Suid (2002), p. 256.
- Wilson, Randy (1997). "Original Pilot's Notes for WWI Replica Aircraft used in the movie The Blue Max". Aviation History Site. Retrieved 30 November 2012.
- "Sky King". IMDb. 2009. Retrieved 29 August 2009.
- Nguyen, Ed (23 May 2006). "Wings". DVD Movie Central. Retrieved 27 July 2012.
- "CG-4A Haig Glider". Saving Private Ryan Online Encyclopedia. Retrieved 11 June 2016.
- Rose, Lloyd (28 June 1987). "Stanley Kubrick, At a Distance". The Washington Post. Retrieved 11 October 2007.
- "The Screaming Mimi!". Summit Helicopter. 2014. Retrieved 11 June 2016.
- "Sikorsky S-58T, Italeri 1:72 by Dennis Lautwein". Scale-rotors.com. 2016. Retrieved 11 June 2016.
- "Films – Y". Rotary Action. Retrieved 11 June 2016.
- "Films – U". Rotary Action. 2010. Retrieved 13 August 2010.
- "Rules of Engagement". Rotary Action. Retrieved 27 May 2014.
- Huxford, Sharon (1995). Schroeder's Collectible Toys: Antique to Modern Guide. Collector Books. ISBN 978-0-89145-661-2.
- "Doctor Who Classic Episode Guide - Time Flight". BBC. 2014. Retrieved 11 June 2016.
- "The Concorde SST Web Site: History of the aircraft that would become Air France Flight 4590". Concorde SST. Retrieved 10 August 2014.
- Turner Classic Movies (2010). "Notes for King Kong (1933)". Retrieved 19 May 2010.
- "Weird Planes: Cancelled Convair XF-92". Urban Ghosts Media.com. 3 June 2013. Retrieved 13 June 2014.
- "Curtiss: K through Z". Aerofiles. Retrieved 11 June 2016.
- "Les chevaliers du ciel (2005)". IMDb. 2010. Retrieved 22 February 2010.
- Hunt, Mary. "The Passions of Harrison Ford". Grand (February–March 2005): 34–36. Retrieved 5 February 2010.
- "The Making of Six Days Seven Nights". Studio Wings. 2016. Retrieved 11 June 2016.
- "DHC-2 Beaver s/n 274". Beaver Tails. Retrieved 11 June 2016.
- Boyne, Walter J. (1 August 2010). "Top 10 Best and Worst Aviation Movies". History Net.
- Wallace, Lane (9 August 2013). "Disney's Planes Is a Weirdly Accurate Depiction of Flying". The Atlantic. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
- "Torchwood (UK) 1x10 Out of Time". ShareTV. Retrieved 29 July 2012.
- Shute, Nevil (1968). Round the Bend. London: Pan. ISBN 0-330-02018-8.
- Follett, Ken. "Hornet Flight – official website". Archived from the original on 18 September 2009. Retrieved 14 January 2010.
- O'Hara, Bob (1989). "633 Squadron". The Making of the Great Aviation Films (Vol.2). Canoga Park, California: Challenge Publications.
- "Mosquito Film". Flight. 94 (3098): 138. 25 July 1968. Retrieved 11 June 2016.
- Alvis 3.1. ""The Shepherd": Story by Frederick Forsyth". Aircraft Resource Center. Retrieved 31 December 2010.
- Worrals (24 August 2004). "A Cargo of Coke". Retrieved 17 March 2010.
- X-Factor, Vol. 1, #39
- "Book Review: The Shepherd by Frederick Forsyth". lovereading.co.uk. 2009. Archived from the original on 18 July 2011. Retrieved 19 October 2009.
- Smith, Miles A. (6 May 1966). "Book review: Whiz-bang Foreign Adventure". The Free Lance–Star. Fredericksburg, Virginia. Retrieved 19 October 2009.
- Bertonneau, Thomas F. (1 July 2010). "A Conservative Obligation: David Lean's The Sound Barrier". The Brussels Journal. Retrieved 27 August 2012.
- Leduc, Fabrice. "Jacques Martin: The Great Threat". yozone.fr. Retrieved 19 October 2009.
- Bagley, Desmond (1974). High Citadel. London: Fontana. ISBN 0-00-612539-5.
- "Strategic Air Command". Aeromovies.fr (in French). Retrieved 23 May 2012.
- Zicree (1982).
- Piercey (1984), p. 33.
- "Douglas DC3 Dakota (C47)". Aces High. Archived from the original on 21 May 2014. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- ""Major League" Screenplay by David S. Ward, Shooting Draft". Internet Movie Script Database. Retrieved 11 June 2016.
- "Photos: Douglas DC-3(C) Aircraft Pictures". Airliners.net. 20 March 2006. Retrieved 7 May 2013.
- Richardson, Nigel (17 October 2008). "Quantum of Solace: James Bond returns to Latin America". The Daily Telegraph. London, UK. Retrieved 11 June 2016.
- Wheeler, Jordan (9 January 2012). "Winnipeg writer is flying high as "Arctic Air" launches on CBC Television". CBC Manitoba. Retrieved 15 February 2012.
- Shane, Bob (January 2006). "The Makings of 'The High and the Mighty': A Former Airline Pilot Remembers the Filming of an Aviation Classic". Airpower. 36 (1).
- "Accident description – Douglas C-54A-10-DC". Aviation Safety Network. March 1964. Retrieved 30 April 2010.
- Dean, Paul (15 November 1980). "Tale of an aging warrior's valor in Vietnam". The Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 14 February 2010.
- Tucker, Nicholas (18 January 2006). "Jan Mark: Prolific and distinctive children's writer who found her voice with her first book, Thunder and Lightnings (obituary)". The Independent. London.
- Fickling, David; Pullman, Philip; Appleton, Jon (23 January 2006). "Jan Mark: Leading children's writer with a soft spot for cats and a robust view of the book trade (obituary)". The Guardian. London.
- "Eurocopter Tiger". Flight Global. Archived from the original on 18 June 2009.
- "Campbell Director's Commentary soundtrack Golden Eye Special Edition DVD 2002". IMDb. 17 November 1995.
- Mersky, Peter B. (2003). From the Flight Deck: An Anthology of the Best Writing on Carrier Warfare. Potomac Books, Inc. p. 159. ISBN 978-1-57488-433-3.
- "Aviation Films – D". Aerofiles. Retrieved 8 May 2010.
- "Accurate Miniatures 1/48 F3F-2". Modeling Madness. Retrieved 9 February 2014.
- Farmer, James H. (September 1989). "Hollywood Goes to North Island NAS". Air Classics. Chatsworth, California: Challenge Publications. 25 (9).
- Scoggins, Frank. "The Great Santini at MCAS Beaufort". OO-RAH.com. Retrieved 5 May 2011.
- Aloni, Shlomo; Avidror, Zvi (2010). Hammers – Israel's Long-Range Heavy Bomber Arm: The Story of 69 Squadron. Atglen, Pennsylvania: Schiffer Publishing. pp. 178–179. ISBN 978-0-7643-3655-3.
- Kleiner, Dick (6 October 1975). "Making War for Movies". Pittsburgh Press. Retrieved 19 January 2010.
- "Warbird Part of Air Museum Exhibit". Osceola News-Gazette. Kissimmee, Florida. 7 January 2010. Archived from the original on 11 January 2010. Retrieved 11 January 2010.
- Marshall, Hutton (14 November 2011). "WWII veteran and Aztec remembered". The Daily Aztec. Retrieved 23 August 2012.
- Kirkland, Bruce (9 August 2013). "'Planes' lags at times, fails to soar". Toronto Sun. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
- Lindsey, Robert (27 May 1986). "Top Gun: Ingenious Dogfights". The New York Times. Retrieved 19 January 2010.
- Jones, Lloyd S. (1977). U.S. Naval Fighters. Fallbrook, California: Aero Publishers. p. 167. ISBN 978-0-8168-9254-9.
- "Grumman Products in the Movies". Grumman Memorial Park. Retrieved 6 August 2012.
- "Guest Speaker Article: Maj. Phil De Groot USMC". Golden Gate Wing, CAF. 27 January 2005. Retrieved 6 August 2012.
- "Windtalkers, a 'soulful' story about friendship during war" (PDF). InCamera. October 2001. Retrieved 6 August 2012.
- "Duncan's F9F". Check Six. Retrieved 25 November 2010.
- Frank, Pat (1959). Alas, Babylon. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott. ISBN 0-553-13260-1.
- "Navy retires F-14 'Top Gun' jet". NBC News. Associated Press. 22 September 2006. Retrieved 11 January 2010.
- Shaer, Matthew (21 July 2009). "Inside the news: The F-22 Raptor warplane". The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 16 January 2010.
- Vartabedian, Ralph (10 September 1986). "The Pentagon is a big help for the right military movie". Gainesville Sun. Gainesville, Florida. p. 7B. Retrieved 17 January 2010.
- "The Infamous Tomcats of VF-84". almansur.com. Archived from the original on 16 July 2015.
- "F-14 Tomcat". The Internet Pinball Database. Retrieved 11 June 2016.
- Briese, Beau (July 2001). "Action Figures From The '80s". TIME. Retrieved 9 December 2009.
- Bellomo (2007), p. 85.
- "Ads for Missile-Crisis Movie Are Pulled Because of Errors". The New York Times. 13 January 2001. Retrieved 16 January 2010.
- "YS Preview: Challenge of the Gobots – Come in, Leader-1". Your Sinclair. 1 (20): 20.
- O'Connor, John J. (2 June 1992). "Review/Television; Pilot Error? A Widow Won't Accept the Verdict". The New York Times. Retrieved 4 January 2012.
- Bellomo (2007), pp. 87, 199.
- Philip S. "G1 Needlenose". Transformers Universe. Retrieved 13 January 2016.
- "F/A-18 Hornet Twentieth Anniversary of First Flight – On the Big Screen". Boeing.com. Archived from the original on 29 October 2012.
- CBS Interactive (July 2004). "F/A-18 Precision Strike Fighter (PC)". CNET. Retrieved 14 June 2011.
- Tatara, Paul (29 November 2001). "'Enemy Lines' slam-bang silliness". CNN. Archived from the original on 18 December 2008. Retrieved 7 February 2010.
- "Willis in good action hero form with Tears of the Sun". The Las Vegas Mercury. 6 March 2003. Retrieved 17 January 2010.
- Alexander, Bryan (25 March 2013). "Look! Up in the sky! It's an exclusive peek at 'Planes'!". USA Today. Retrieved 21 June 2013.
- Shintani, Kaoru. Area 88 Vol. 3. Shonen Sunday Wide Comics, 1990.
- Area 88. Act 2: Requirements of Wolves. Studio Pierrot, 1985–1986.
- Tilmann, Barrett (1991). Warriors. Bantam Books. ISBN 978-0-55334-881-1.
- Miles, Donna (21 June 2007). "Movie makers team with military to create realism". United States Air Force. American Forces Press Service. Retrieved 28 May 2013.
- Michael Bay's DVD audio commentary for Transformers, 2007, Paramount/DreamWorks.
- "The F22 Raptor heads to the screen". CraveOnline. 25 September 2007. Retrieved 17 January 2010.
- "Claw Slash Ramjet" (PDF). Hasbro. 2007. Retrieved 9 December 2009.
- Vandom, D. (April 1997). "Transformers Machine Wars". Dave's Transformers Page. Retrieved 4 January 2010.
- Gray, Simon (July 2007). "One-Man Riot Squad". American Cinematographer. 88 (7): 32.
- Yee, Benson (May 2009). "Revenge of the Fallen: Breakaway Toy Review". Ben's World of Transformers. Retrieved 20 February 2010.
- "Pentagon Bails On The Avengers Because The Plot Wasn't Realistic". CinemaBlend.com. 7 May 2012. Retrieved 22 May 2012.
- Ackerman, Spencer (5 July 2012). "Pentagon Quit The Avengers Because of Its 'Unreality'". Wired. Retrieved 22 May 2012.
- Ryan, Mike (17 June 2011). "Green Lantern: How Realistic Is Ryan Reynolds As A Test Pilot?". Popular Mechanics.
- Kushner, David (31 October 2013). "Ender's Game is Already a Reality for the U.S. Military". Spectrum.ieee.org. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
- "Aviation Films – H". Aerofiles. Retrieved 8 May 2010.
- Dyer, Geoff (29 March 2011). "The Hunters". The Paris Review. Retrieved 10 October 2012.
- "Blast From The Past". DVDFile. 31 July 1999. Archived from the original on 12 October 2013. Retrieved 3 November 2012.
- "Overview for "The Russians Are Coming, The Russians Are Coming"". Turner Classic Movies. Retrieved 1 January 2009.
- "The Crash of Yeager's NF-104". Check Six. 2002.
- "Lockheed F-104 Starfighter". Pacific Aviation Museum. 15 May 2013. Retrieved 8 December 2013.
- Beaulieu, Trace; Chaplin, Paul; et al. (1996). The Mystery Science Theater 3000 Amazing Colossal Episode Guide. Bantam Books. ISBN 978-0-55337-783-5.
- "Individual History Fairchild Argus II G-AIZE Museum Accession Number 73/A/1097" (PDF). Royal Air Force Museum London. 2012. Retrieved 12 February 2014.
- Cotta Vaz & Duignan (1996), p. 155.
- Howard, Lee (December 2010). "Return of the Stringbag". Aeroplane. 38 (12): 48.
- "Fw 190 replica". Flug Werk. Archived from the original on 3 January 2009. Retrieved 23 August 2010.
- "Comic Review: The Grand Duke". Geeks of Doom. 19 February 2013. Retrieved 6 March 2013.
- "Red Skull's Escape Vehicles (2011)". Monster Minions. 22 July 2011. Retrieved 1 August 2011.
- "Enemy Ace Archives HC Vol. 01". Tales of Wonder. Retrieved 6 March 2013.
- "Blue Max". The Vintage Aviator. Retrieved 26 March 2013.
- Browne, Bill (26 July 2012). "New life for iconic 'prop' of Blue Max". Irish Independent. Retrieved 15 April 2013.
- "Mass Historia: Film Review – Flyboys". Walter Nelson.com. 25 September 2006. Retrieved 6 March 2013.
- Gremlin. "Review: Der Rote Baron". Wings of Honor.com. Retrieved 10 March 2013.
- Blosser, Lyle P. (2004). "Hardware and Gadgets". Classic Jonny Quest.
- "Folland / Hawker Siddeley Gnat". Global Security.org. Retrieved 11 July 2011.
- Marks, Scott (3 March 2008). "'Tin Goose' airplane used in Jerry Lewis' "The Family Jewels" still soaring after 79 years". emulsioncompulsion.com. Archived from the original on 6 March 2008. Retrieved 14 July 2010.
- "Ford Trimotor". Fantasy of Flight. Retrieved 11 June 2016.
- Wiggins, Arthur B. "N7584". The Ford Tri-Motors!. Retrieved 11 June 2016.
- "GAF Nomad Bush Plane". Bush-planes.com. Retrieved 10 September 2012.
- "GAF N22B Nomad – Pima ASM, Tucson, AZ – Static Aircraft Displays". Waymarking.com. Retrieved 10 September 2012.
- Schweiger, Daniel (August 1991). "Rocketeer: Comic Book Origins". Cinefantastique.
- "Historic Racers Inspire Kids' Books". Orlando Sentinel. Orlando, Florida. 8 October 2007. p. J1.
- "Page 4, Huntingdon Daily News, September 25, 1942". NewspaperARCHIVE.com. 25 September 1942. Retrieved 17 August 2012.
- "Gloster Gladiator Mk.I K8042/8372M" (PDF). Royal Air Force Museum London. Retrieved 17 August 2012.
- "Gladiator Collision". Ezraysnet.co.uk. 30 December 1943. Archived from the original on 27 October 2011. Retrieved 17 August 2012.
- "Gloster Meteor NF11 (TT20) WD592". MeteorFlight.com. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016.
- "Betty Friedan, Who Ignited Cause in 'Feminine Mystique,' Dies at 85". The New York Times. 5 February 2006. (subscription required (. ))
- "Gloster Meteor". The Unmutual Prisoner Vehicle Guide. Retrieved 28 April 2015.
- Canby, Vincent (1 April 1977). "Movie Review – Black Sunday". The New York Times. Retrieved 5 January 2015.
- "Fly Hard: 740 shots in 4 months". FXguide.com. 24 September 2006. Retrieved 28 December 2012.
- "Gotha G.IV Replica". Air-Britain Photographic Images Collection. 23 September 2010. Retrieved 28 December 2012.
- Muir, John Kenneth (2004). "Tales of the Gold Monkey 1982–83". Retrieved 25 September 2011.
- Anderson, Matt (August 2010). "The Expendables". Movie Habit. Archived from the original on 2 January 2011. Retrieved 14 December 2010.
- Longabardi, Eric (14 August 2010). "Exclusive: New Sylvester Stallone Action Movies The Expendables Used Seaplane Pilot With Safety Question". The Enterprise Report.
- "The Loss of Flight 19". Airscene UK. 5 December 1945. Retrieved 19 July 2012.
- "CAF Rocky Mountain Wing Grumman TBM-3E Avenger". Warbird Depot. Retrieved 19 July 2012.
- "Grumman G-44 Widgeon". We Love Seaplanes. Archived from the original on 23 October 2012. Retrieved 11 June 2016.
- Bellomo (2007), p. 168.
- Shintani, Kaoru. Area 88 Vol. 10. Shonen Sunday Wide Comics, 1990.
- Nordeen, Lon O. (1985). Air Warfare in the Missile Age. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press. p. 100. ISBN 978-0-87474-680-8.
- Ebert, Roger (21 July 1994). "True Lies determined to go over the top without outlandish special effects". Southeast Missourian. Retrieved 2 March 2011.
- "Harrier Jump Jet (The Living Daylights)". MI6: The Home of James Bond 007. Retrieved 22 November 2012.
- "Battlefield Earth: Plot Synopsis". IMDb. Retrieved 9 November 2015.
- Bellomo (2007), p. 87.
- Yee, Benson (2009). "Revenge of the Fallen Dirge Toy review". Ben's World of Transformers. Retrieved 19 January 2010.
- "Squadron". TV.com. 9 July 2009. Retrieved 8 August 2012.
- "The Saint: Flight Plan". IMDb. 26 August 2011. Retrieved 30 November 2014.
- "Handley Page Victor K2 – Not a Lot of People Know That...". National Cold War Exhibition. Archived from the original on 30 September 2012.
- "Preserved Hawker Hunters at Brooklands – Hunter 'XF314'". Brooklands Hunters. Retrieved 19 May 2014.
- "Border (1997)". IMDb. Retrieved 5 January 2015.
- "La crítica chilena concuerda en postular filme "Machuca" al Oscar". El Mercurio de Antofagasta (in Spanish). Antofagasta, Chile. 4 August 2004. Retrieved 10 May 2012.
- ""Machuca", el filme con mejor debut de la historia del cine chileno". La Estrella de Arica (in Spanish). Arica, Chile. 7 August 2004. Retrieved 10 May 2012.
- Griffin, David J. (December 2006). Hawker Hunter: 1951–2007. Morrisville, North Carolina: Lulu Enterprises. p. 79. ISBN 978-1-4303-0593-4. Retrieved 28 September 2015.
- Stroud, Nick (2012). "The Last of the Many: The Racing Years". Warbirds International. 31 (5): 43.
- "Hawker Hurricane". Plane-crazy.purplecloud.net. Archived from the original on 30 January 2013. Retrieved 3 August 2012.
- Burman, Mark (11 September 2009). "The Battle of Britain: the mother of all air battles". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 19 January 2010.
- "A Brief History of Johnny Red". Falcon Squadron. 22 February 2010. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 3 August 2012.
- Calder, Angus (1992). The Myth of the Blitz. Pimlico. pp. 162–163.
- "Blue Man Falling". Reading Circle. Retrieved 8 July 2012.
- "Hiller UH-12B". JetPhotos. Retrieved 11 June 2016.
- "Hiller, Helicopter UH 12C "N780ND"". 007helicopter.com. Archived from the original on 16 March 2012.
- "Movie Crash from Attack of the Killer Tomatoes, 11 July 1978". Check Six. Retrieved 7 May 2011.
- "Films – W". Rotary Action. Retrieved 1 September 2012.
- Hardwick & Schnepf (1989).
- Russo, Carolyn (2003). Artifacts of Flight Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum. Harry N. Abrams Incorporated. ISBN 978-0-8109-4530-2.
- "Trivia for Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade (1989)". IMDb. Retrieved 11 June 2016.
- Sky Captain and the World of Tomorrow at the Internet Movie Planes Database
- Scutts, Jerry (1996). Messerschmitt Bf 109: The operational record. Crestline. p. 138. ISBN 0-7603-0262-6.
- Brown (2012), p. 50.
- Chapman & Goodall (1992), pp. 207–210.
- Brown (2012), p. 51.
- Severin Films DVD Case, 2009. Retrieved: September 2009.
- Wharmby, Matthew. "Review of "Galactica Discovers Earth"". Sheba's Galaxy: The Ultimate Battlestar Galactica Information Site. Retrieved 27 August 2012.
- Brown (2012), p. 52.
- "The Making of the Film Memphis Belle – The 109's (Hispano HA 1112's)". Oliver Holmes Photography. Retrieved 11 June 2016.
- "Birds Of Prey". Rotary Action. Retrieved 11 June 2016.
- "Black Hawk Down". Rotary Action. Retrieved 11 June 2016.
- Barbera, Joseph (1994). My Life in Toons From Flatbush to Bedrock in Under a Century. Atlanta: Turner Publishing. pp. 191–192. ISBN 1-57036-042-1.
- Maslin, Janet (12 August 1988). "Review/Film: 'Tucker the Man and His Dream': Glimpsing the Soul of an Old Machine". The New York Times.
- David, Peter (1991). The Rocketeer. New York: Bantam Books. ISBN 978-0-55329-322-7.
- Pike, John. "HK-1 / H-4 / Hercules / Spruce Goose". Global Security. Retrieved 11 June 2016.
- "New L.A. Noire Screens from the 'Nichsolson Electroplating' Arson Case". Rock Star Games. Retrieved 15 September 2011.
- Davison, Pete (22 June 2011). "L.A. Noire Nicholson Electroplating DLC out now". Gamepro.com. Archived from the original on 30 November 2011. Retrieved 20 August 2011.
- "Leverage". TheTVDB. Retrieved 14 July 2013.
- "The Crash of the XF-11 7 July 1946". Check Six. Retrieved 11 June 2016.
- Denning, Larry. "AHM 'Connie' at the Movies". airlinehistorymuseum.com. Archived from the original on 25 February 2012.
- Gordon, Ed (1 March 2012). "ICON Aircraft: A5 achieves FAA milestone". Tehachapi News. Tehachapi, California. Archived from the original on 12 October 2013. Retrieved 4 March 2012.
- "La Cinquième Offensive". Aeromovies.fr (in French). Retrieved 11 June 2016.
- "Aviation Films – M". Aerofiles. Retrieved 8 May 2010.
- "The Grumman J2F Duck". Aviation-history.com. Retrieved 24 July 2012.
- Ogden (1986), p. 146.
- Powell, William M. (May 1999). "Junkers JU-52". Retrieved 19 May 2010.
- "Junkers Ju52". Shoot Aviation. Retrieved 19 July 2012.
- Paris, Michael (1995). From the Wright Brothers to Top Gun: Aviation, Nationalism, and Popular Cinema. Manchester University Press. pp. 151–152. ISBN 978-0-7190-4074-0. Retrieved 3 November 2015.
- Bellomo (2007), p. 114.
- "Films – N". Rotary Action. Retrieved 14 May 2014.
- Haynes, Max (2006). Warbirds. Zenith Imprint. p. 80. ISBN 978-0-7603-2662-6.
- Joss, John (1977). Sierra Sierra. Los Altos, California: Soaring Press. ISBN 978-0-930514-09-9.
- "Trans World Airlines Lockheed Constellation "Save A Connie" First Class Cabin at National Airline History Museum, Kansas City". Airchive.com. Retrieved 29 July 2012.
- Butler, Jimmie H. (1991). Red Lightning, Black Thunder. Dutton Adult. ISBN 978-0-525-93377-9.
- "JAG episode "Dog Robber"". tvshowsonline24.com. 2010. Archived from the original on 12 October 2013.
- "'Of all the gin joints...'". Air Classics. December 2001. Retrieved 17 January 2010.
- Branchu, Marc (14 May 2008). "Reaching for the stars". Air France. Archived from the original on 9 August 2011. Retrieved 17 January 2010.
- "VH-BNJ Lockheed Hudson IVA". Aussieairliners.org. Retrieved 1 September 2012.
- "Makeover for Museum's Lockheed Hudson". Temora Aviation Museum. 24 June 2005. Retrieved 1 September 2012.
- "Lockheed Jetstar". James Bond Multimedia. 2010. Retrieved 19 May 2010.
- Ramer, Dan (15 September 2006). "This Island Earth". DVDFile. Archived from the original on 12 October 2013. Retrieved 20 July 2012.
- "Shooting Star". Pima Air & Space Museum. Retrieved 13 June 2014.
- Francis Gary Powers: The True Story of the U-2 Spy Incident (1976) (TV). IMDb.com
- Supplement 8 to Joint Evaluation of Soviet Missile Threat In Cuba (Report). Central Intelligence Agency. 28 October 1962.
- Travers, Peter (18 December 2000). "Thirteen Days". Rolling Stone. Archived from the original on 3 December 2007. Retrieved 12 January 2010.
- Allen (1988), p. 179.
- Allen (1988), p. 184.
- "The Longest Day". D-Day Battlefield Normandy. Retrieved 14 May 2010.
- Hardwick, Jack; Schnepf, Ed (Spring 1983). "A Buff's Guide to Aviation Movies". Air Progress Aviation. 7 (1).
- "Stealing An Airplane". WW2 Aircraft Forum. January 2010. Retrieved 11 June 2016.
- Hoarn, Steven (16 January 2012). "Red Tails Movie Review". Defense Media Network. Retrieved 30 November 2012.
- "Pixel Magic Uses REALVIZ MatchMover for Flight Combat Scenes in Hart's War". DMN Newswire. 4 April 2002. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 15 April 2013.
- Crump, Bill (October 2007). "Bandits on Film". FlyPast: 73.
- Miller, Jim (20 June 1974). "Secret Treaties Review". Rolling Stone. Archived from the original on 12 October 2009. Retrieved 24 July 2008.
- "Red Tails (2012) Movie Review". Eye for Film. 31 May 2012. Retrieved 30 November 2012.
- Niles, Douglas; Dobson, Michael (2000). Fox on the Rhine. Forge Books. ISBN 978-0-31286-894-9.
- Ennis, Garth, and Kanigher, Robert. Enemy Ace: War In Heaven #2, DC/Vertigo Comics, May 2001.
- Griffin, W. E. B. (2000). Secret Honor. New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons. ISBN 978-0-39914-568-1.
- "To Russia with Love". TV.com. Retrieved 11 June 2016.
- Clements, Toby (11 March 2007). "The cosmonaut who shot the Moon". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 10 October 2012.
- Cooke, Rachel (11 September 2011). "Ascent by Wesley Robins and Jed Mercurio". The Observer. London. Retrieved 10 October 2012.
- "AF gives all clear signal to Aamir's Rang de Basanti". The Times of India. 10 January 2006. Retrieved 23 March 2008.
- Yee, Benson (2008). "Transformers 2007 Movie Overcast Toy Review". Ben's World of Transformers. Retrieved 19 January 2010.
- "Films – B". Rotary Action. Retrieved 11 June 2016.
- "Die Another Day". Rotary Action. Retrieved 8 February 2013.
- "Films – N". Rotary Action. Retrieved 11 June 2016.
- "A Good Day to Die Hard". Rotary Action. Retrieved 10 May 2014.
- "Charlie Wilson's War". Exploding Helicopter. Retrieved 30 January 2015.
- Gunner, Jerry (October 2012). "Film Star Halo". Air Forces Monthly. Stamford, Lincs., UK: Key Publishing (295): 50–51.
- "Moller International Skycar to be Featured in NBC's The Jensen Project". Moller International. 13 July 2010. Archived from the original on 6 March 2012.
- "Skycar for Sale". PR Newswire. 27 January 2003. Retrieved 18 December 2015.
- "Morane 230". Hangar 47. Retrieved 27 July 2012.
- Ogden (1986), p. 136.
- Connors, John F. (August 1974). "Fokker's Flying Razors". Wings. Granada Hills, California. 4 (4): 45, 48.
- Jane, Frederick Thomas (1990). Jane's Fighting Aircraft of World War I. Crescent. p. 148. ISBN 0-517-03376-3.
- Briggs, Caroline (14 May 2005). "Actors learn to fly for war film". BBC News. Retrieved 12 January 2010.
- Talcott, Christina (22 September 2006). "'Flyboy' Rises Above Villainous Past". The Washington Post. Retrieved 12 January 2010.
- Lyons, Thom (2004). "Noorduyn Norseman". Project PI. Retrieved 11 June 2016.
- "North American SNJ-5". Planes Of Fame. Retrieved 8 December 2013.
- Barnes, Thornton D. "X-15 Crashes". Secret Heroes. Retrieved 11 June 2016.
- "X-15: The Hollywood Version". Air & Space/Smithsonian. 1 August 2007. Retrieved 9 August 2012.
- Howe, Tom. "Northrop YB-49 Flying Wing". cedmagic.com. Retrieved 11 June 2016.
- "Bat*21". IMDb. 2009. Retrieved 31 October 2009.
- Wloszczyna, Susan (15 December 2005). ""King Kong" abounds with fun facts for fanboys". USA Today. Retrieved 8 February 2013.
- Fournier, Luc. "Seversky P-35's unexpected metamorphosis". Aerostories. Retrieved 11 June 2016.
- "Reconnaissance Pilot". YouTube. February 2010. Archived from the original on 8 December 2013. Retrieved 23 February 2010.
- Mulrooney, Christopher. "Von Ryan's Express". PIX. Retrieved 11 June 2016.
- Fighters and Bombers of World War II. Mainz, Germany: PediaPress GmbH. p. 32.
- Shannon, Jeff (13 June 1992). "'Iron Eagle III': They Can't Stay Out Of Those Flying Machines". Seattle Times. Retrieved 28 January 2014.
- Van Gelder, Lawrence (22 September 1996). "Movies this week". The New York Times. Retrieved 10 February 2010.
- Church, Harlow (6 January 1943). "Film Makers Learn to Share". Pittsburgh Press. p. 21. Retrieved 10 February 2010.
- "Ronald Reagan – Identification of the Japanese Zero (Training Film)". International Historic Films. Retrieved 11 June 2016.
- "Film Tribute to Air Heroes". St. Petersburg Times. 21 April 1945. Retrieved 10 February 2010.
- Santoir, Christian. "Tobrouk, commando pour l'enfer". Aeromovies.fr (in French). Retrieved 8 February 2013.
- Hathaway, John (July 1969). "Tora! Tora! Tora!". Flying Review. 25 (3): 52.
- "The Filmwork of Frank Tallman". Aero Vintage Books. Retrieved 8 February 2013.
- "Death Race (1973) (TV) – Lloyd Bridges, Roy Thinnes, Eric Braeden, Doug McClure". Learmedia.ca. 11 November 2005. Archived from the original on 6 November 2013. Retrieved 8 February 2013.
- Santoir, Christian. "Birds of Prey". Aeromovies.fr (in French). Retrieved 29 July 2015.
- "1941 – A Giant Comedy – Only With Guns!". DVDtalk.com. Retrieved 11 June 2016.
- "Pearl Harbor (2001)". Movie Mistakes. Retrieved 11 June 2016.
- "Fighter Squadron (1948)." IMDb.com. Retrieved: 21 November 2009.
- Vojtášek, Filip (27 July 2007). "Bohuslav Martinů napsal skladbu nazvanou P-47 Thunderbolt" [Bohuslav Martinů composed a scherzo titled P-47 Thunderbolt]. Hloubkari.cz (in Czech). Archived from the original on 27 May 2008. Retrieved 5 February 2010.
- "Steve Earle – Johnny Come Lately Lyrics". MetroLyrics. Retrieved 11 June 2016.
- Denby, David. "Empire Builders: Empire of the Sun is Spielberg's most psychologically complex work." New York Magazine, 14 December 1987. Retrieved: 22 November 2014.
- Armstrong, Doree (31 July 2003). "Tuskegee Airmen seek a 'double victory'". Seattle Post-Intelligencer. Retrieved 11 January 2010.
- "P-51D Mustang IV". Saving Private Ryan Online Encyclopedia. 2013. Retrieved 11 June 2016.
- Holden, Stephen (19 January 2012). "Pilots Who Fought to Soar Above Racism". The New York Times. Retrieved 8 February 2012. (subscription required (. ))
- "Strike Force (1995 television pilot)". British Film Institute. Retrieved 22 February 2010.
- Bellomo (2007), p. 199.
- "Steelyard Blues (1973)". IMDb. Retrieved 11 June 2016.
- Legg, David (2002). Consolidated PBY Catalina The Peacetime Record. Naval Institute Press. p. 257. ISBN 978-1-55750-245-2.
- Crouchman, Alan F. (September 2001). "'Cat' Gets Movie Role". Flypast. Stamford, Lincs. (242): 7.
- "Third VP-23" (PDF). Dictionary Of American Naval Aviation Squadrons — Volume 2. U.S. Navy. p. 143. Retrieved 20 September 2009.
- Jackson, Aubrey Joseph (1973). British Civil Aircraft since 1919. 1. London: Putnam & Company Ltd. ISBN 978-0-370-10006-7.
- "Goldfinger (1964)". MI6: The Home of James Bond 007. Retrieved 6 February 2010.
- Lande, David (1 September 2008). "Live and Let Fly: Real pilots rate the performance of the airplanes in James Bond flicks". Air & Space/Smithsonian. Retrieved 11 June 2016.
- "It Happened One Night – Screenplay by Robert Riskin". Daily Script. Retrieved 11 June 2016.
- "It Happened One Night (1934)". Filmsite.org. Retrieved 11 June 2016.
- Savard, Catherine (2016). "It Happened One Night (1934)". Midnight Oil: Movies and More. Retrieved 11 June 2016.
- "Notes On History Of Helicopters, etc...". Rotary Action. Retrieved 11 June 2016.
- "BBC to show Biggles Biplane restoration story". Light Aircraft Association. Retrieved 10 September 2012.
- "BBC to show Biggles Biplane restoration story". UK General Aviation. 21 January 2012. Retrieved 10 September 2012.
- "Biggles Biplane Restoration". Biggles Biplane.com. Retrieved 10 September 2012.
- Slater, Steve (Summer 2011). "Biggles Biplane flies again!". The Journal of the Friends of Sywell Aerodrome (18). Retrieved 10 September 2012.
- Cassagneres, Ev (2002). The Untold Story of the Spirit of St. Louis: From the Drawing Board to the Smithsonian. New Brighton, Minnesota: Flying Book International. p. 140. ISBN 0-911139-32-X.
- Simpson, Rod (2003). "Preserving the Spirit". Air-Britain Aviation World. 55 (4): 66. ISSN 0950-7434.
- "New Zealand Serials – Douglas SBD-3, -4, -5 Dauntless". ADF-serials.com. 6 March 2001. Retrieved 8 December 2013.
- "Planes of Fame's Douglas SBD-5 Dauntless". Warbird Depot. 7 February 1987. Retrieved 8 December 2013.
- Skarrup, Harold A. (2002). California Warbird Survivors 2002. San Jose, California: Writers Club Press. p. 262. ISBN 9780595236442.
- "USN Overseas Aircraft Loss List May 1943". Aviation Archaeology. Retrieved 9 February 2014.
- "Curtiss SB2C Helldiver: The Last Dive Bomber". Historynet.com. 12 June 2006. Retrieved 21 May 2012.
- "Movie Crash – Earth vs. the Flying Saucers". Check Six. 2015. Retrieved 11 June 2016.
- Haligon, Richard (1980). The Flying Porcupine. London, UK: Futura Publications. ISBN 978-0-70881-760-5.
- "Eglin Group Aiding In Film Story". Playground News. 9 (57). Fort Walton Beach, Florida. 3 March 1955. p. 3.
- Clutterbuck, Martin. "Harold the Helicopter". The Real Lives of Thomas the Tank Engine. Retrieved 7 June 2010.
- "Films – L". Rotary Action. Retrieved 10 February 2015.
- "When Eight Bells Toll". Scotland the Movie: Location Guide. 2015. Retrieved 11 June 2016.
- Cochran, Jay (15 June 2007). "The Making Of The Transformers Movie – Production Design: The Robots, The Vehicles, The Sets". Entertainment News International. Archived from the original on 17 September 2007. Retrieved 13 September 2007.
- "Evac" (PDF). Hasbro. 2007. Retrieved 9 December 2009.
- Cowen, Nick; Patience, Hari (6 July 2009). "Wheels On Film: Transformers: Revenge Of The Fallen". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 11 June 2016.
- "Films – I". Rotary Action. Retrieved 11 June 2016.
- "Swordfish (2001)". Rotary Action. Retrieved 11 June 2016.
- Cappiello, Vince (4 June 2003). "Survivor credits instinct". Casper Star-Tribune. Casper, Wyoming. Retrieved 11 January 2010.
- Dwiggins, Don (1967). Hollywood Pilot: The Biography of Paul Mantz. New York: Curtis Books. p. 42. LCCN 67-12309.
- Klaas, M. D. (September 2013). "The Flying Aces". Air Classics. Chatsworth, California: Challenge Publications, Inc. 49 (9): 48.
- Harris, Roger. "The Camels are Coming". biggles.info. Retrieved 12 January 2010.
- Harris, Roger. "Biggles of the Camel Squadron". biggles.info. Retrieved 12 January 2010.
- Austin, Jenna (September 2008). "Winged Victory by Victor Maslin Yeates, A Review". Literature-study-online.com. Retrieved 17 August 2012.
- Frisina, Scott A. (August 1999). "The Great Waldo Pepper (1975)". IMDb. Archived from the original on 5 April 2010. Retrieved 18 May 2010.
- Moran, Tina (11 January 2013). "Book review: A Splendid Little War by Derek Robinson". The Daily Express. Retrieved 15 January 2013.
- "Sopwith 1½ Strutter". Proctor Enterprises. Retrieved 10 September 2012.
- LeCompte, Tom (July 2006). "At the Movies: Take Two". Air & Space/Smithsonian. Retrieved 10 September 2012.
- "Space Shuttles depicted in movies". AVS Forum. 18 April 2008. Retrieved 15 May 2014.
- Kramer, Miriam (5 October 2013). "The Spaceships of 'Gravity': A Spacecraft Movie Guide for Astronauts". Space.com. Retrieved 5 December 2013.
- Bellomo (2007), pp. 101, 112.
- Harrison, Payne (1990). Storming Intrepid. London, UK: Coronet. ISBN 978-0-34053-057-3.
- "D.A.R.Y.L (A-)". Movie Monday.com. Retrieved 23 August 2011.
- "Transformers: Revenge of the Fallen – Leader Jetfire". Hasbro. 2008. Retrieved 9 December 2009.
- "One stop worldwide aviation resource". Bianchi Aviation Film Services. Retrieved 11 June 2016.
- "Aces High (1976) - Full Cast & Crew". IMDb. Retrieved 11 June 2016.
- Leslie Howard (Director) (1942). The First of the Few (Motion picture). British Aviation Pictures. Retrieved 28 April 2010.
- "The First of the Few". Britmovie. 2010. Retrieved 28 April 2010.
- Ward, Henry (6 August 1955). "Alec Guinness stars in Malta Story". Pittsburgh Press. Retrieved 19 January 2010.
- "Squadron Airborne by Elleston Trevor". Kirkus Book Reviews. 3 September 1956. Retrieved 9 July 2012.
- "Band of Eagles". Amazon.co.uk. 1 January 2007. Retrieved 9 July 2012.
- "Spitfire Mk.LFIXc MK297". Sons of Damien.co.uk. Retrieved 11 September 2012.
- "Spitfire Mk.V". The Victory Show. Archived from the original on 20 January 2013. Retrieved 11 September 2012.
- Wood, Bret. "TCM This Month – The Train". Turner Classic Movies. Retrieved 11 June 2016.
- McSmith, Andy (22 April 2009). "Killer looks seduce property man". The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 19 January 2010.
- Boorman, John (2003). Adventures of a Suburban Boy. Faber & Faber. pp. 271–277.
- Mann, Roderick (26 October 1987). "Boorman Remembers War's 'Hope And Glory'". The Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 6 August 2012.
- "Supermarine Spitfire LFIXb MH434 – The Old Flying Machine Company". Shoreham Airshow. 2012. Archived from the original on 14 October 2012. Retrieved 6 August 2012.
- Voorhees, John (6 July 1990). "It's Easy To Get Up About Something Like `Piece Of Cake'". Seattle Times. Retrieved 19 January 2010.
- "Dark Blue World : Production Notes". Culture.com. Retrieved 29 July 2012.
- "Film Work". Historic Aircraft Collection Limited. Retrieved 2 August 2012.
- "Supermarine Spitfire". Simply Planes.co.uk. Retrieved 2 August 2012.
- Gomelsky, Victoria (8 March 2012). "Time Takes a Star Turn in Industry's Short Films". The New York Times. Retrieved 29 July 2012.
- Hendry, Steve (12 September 2010). "Awed star hails Battle of Britain heroes after playing young Spitfire ace". The Daily Record. Retrieved 29 July 2012.
- "Paths Of Hate – An Interview with Damian Nenow". CG Tantra.com. Retrieved 28 December 2012.
- Mitchell, Wendy (13 January 2012). "Oscar shortlisted Paths Of Hate sells widely for New Europe Film Sales". ScreenDaily.com. Retrieved 28 December 2012.
- Andrews, Charles Ferdinand; Morgan, Eric B. (1987). Supermarine Aircraft since 1914 (2nd ed.). London: Putnam. p. 284. ISBN 0-85177-800-3.
- "Ultralight aircraft". williamlishman.com. Retrieved 11 June 2016.
- Ebert, Roger (13 September 1996). "Fly Away Home". Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved 9 March 2011.
- "Here Comes the Navy". Turner Classic Movies. Retrieved 11 June 2016.
- "All aboard the Funbus!". Sywell Aerodrome. Retrieved 28 April 2015.
- Pither, Tony, ed. (2010). Civil Aircraft Registers of the United Kingdom, Ireland, and the Isle of Man, 2010. Tonbridge: Air Britain (Historians) Ltd. p. 500. ISBN 978-0-85130-423-6.
- Crowther, Bosley (18 October 1941). "'Target for Tonight,' a Fine Fact Film About the R.A.F.". The New York Times. Retrieved 11 June 2016.
- Reynolds, Kimberly; Brennan, Geraldine; McCarron, Kevin (2004). Frightening Fiction. Bloomsbury Academic. ISBN 978-0-8264-7758-3.
- Zawisza, Doug. "Review: Battlefields: Happy Valley #1". Comic Book Resources. Retrieved 9 July 2012.
- Francis, Martin (27 November 2008). The Flyer: British Culture and the Royal Air Force 1939-1945. OUP Oxford. pp. 142–143. ISBN 978-0-19-161696-9. Retrieved 3 November 2015.
- "Simple Love in 'Pastoral' : Nevil Shute wins praise for the novel". The Pittsburgh Press. 22 October 1944. Retrieved 3 November 2015.
- Scalf, Russell (26 May 2006). "Ospreys in flight". United States Air Force. Archived from the original on 8 May 2007.
- Ponder, Arlan (5 June 2006). "Movie project transforms Holloman". United States Air Force. 49th Fighter Wing Public Affairs. Archived from the original on 19 October 2012.
- Simmons, Larry A. (3 July 2007). "'Transformers' put Airmen, aircraft on big screen". United States Air Force. Air Force News Agency. Archived from the original on 19 October 2012.
- "New Images of Transformers Movie "Allspark Power" Figures, Cliffjumper, Brawl Repaint and More!". Seibertron.com. 29 July 2007. Retrieved 19 January 2010.
- McCurdy, Angel (28 September 2010). "Transformers 3 filming at airport, Hurlburt Field". Northwest Florida Daily News. Fort Walton Beach, Florida. Archived from the original on 1 October 2010. Retrieved 11 June 2016.
- Jackson, Aubrey Joseph (1974). British Civil Aircraft since 1919. 3. London: Putnam & Company Ltd. ISBN 978-0-370-10014-2.
- "Ken Wallis". Kenwallisautogyro.com. 4 July 2010. Archived from the original on 27 September 2013. Retrieved 15 November 2012.
- Groening, Matt (1997). Richmond, Ray; Coffman, Antonia, eds. The Simpsons: A Complete Guide to Our Favorite Family (1st ed.). New York: HarperPerennial. p. 190. ISBN 978-0-06-095252-5. LCCN 98141857. OCLC 37796735. OL 433519M.
- "Valentine Flyer". Wright B Flyer Inc. 2 March 1910. Retrieved 9 December 2013.
- Thompson, Lance (December 1997). "Valley of the Kings". FlyPast. Stamford, Lincs., UK (197): 25.
- Peterson, Wayne (June 2002). "Toward The Unknown". Wings. Woodland, Hills, California. 32 (3): 13.
- Yee, Benson (2009). "Transformers Universe 2.0 Toy Reviews: Silverbolt". Ben's World of Transformers. Retrieved 7 December 2009.
- Hall, Mordaunt (16 August 1930). "The Scree