A. R. Rahman

"AR Rahman" redirects here. For the surah of the Quran, see Ar-Rahman.
A. R. Rahman

Rahman Performing Live at the NH7 Weekender 2015 (Bangalore)
Background information
Native name அ. ர. ரகுமான்
Birth name A. S. Dileep Kumar
Also known as
  • A. R. Rahman
  • A. R. R.
  • Allah Rakha Rahman
  • Isai Puyal
  • Mozart of Madras
Born (1967-01-06) 6 January 1967
Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
  • Singer
  • songwriter
  • composer
  • record producer
  • music director
  • arranger
  • conductor
Years active 1987–present
Website arrahman.com

Musical career

Associated acts

Allah-Rakha Rahman ( pronunciation , born A. S. Dileep Kumar), is an Indian composer, singer-songwriter, music producer, musician and philanthropist. A. R. Rahman's works are noted for integrating Eastern classical music with electronic music, world music and traditional orchestral arrangements. Among his awards are two Academy Awards, two Grammy Awards, a BAFTA Award, a Golden Globe, four National Film Awards, fifteen Filmfare Awards and thirteen Filmfare Awards South. He has been awarded the Padma Bhushan, the third highest civilian award, in 2010 by the Government of India.[1] Rahman's body of work for film and stage has given him the nickname of "the Mozart of Madras", and Tamil commentators and fans call him Isai Puyal (English: the Musical Storm).[2]

In 2009, Time included Rahman on its list of the world's most influential people.[3] The UK-based world-music magazine Songlines named him one of "Tomorrow's World Music Icons" in August 2011.[4]

With an in-house studio (Panchathan Record Inn in Chennai), Rahman's film-scoring career began during the early 1990s with the Tamil film Roja. Working in India's film industries, international cinema and theatre, Rahman is one of the world's all-time best-selling recording artists.[5][6][7] In a notable two-decade career, he has been acclaimed for redefining contemporary Indian film music and contributing to the success of several films. Rahman has become a notable humanitarian and philanthropist, donating and raising money for a number of causes and charities.

Early life

Two smiling men holding a record award
Rahman (left) receiving a platinum award at the MagnaSound Awards; MagnaSound released his first film soundtrack, Roja, in 1992.

Rahman was born in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. His father, R. K. Shekhar, was a film-score composer and conductor for Tamil and Malayalam films; Rahman assisted his father in the studio, playing the keyboard. After his father's death when Rahman was nine years old, the rental of his father's musical equipment provided his family's income.[8] Raised by his mother, Kareema (born Kashturi),[9] Rahman was a keyboard player and arranger for bands such as Roots (with childhood friend and percussionist Sivamani, John Anthony, Suresh Peters, JoJo and Raja)[10] and founded the Chennai-based rock group Nemesis Avenue.[11] He mastered the keyboard, piano, synthesizer, harmonium and guitar, and was particularly interested in the synthesizer because it was the "ideal combination of music and technology".[12]

Rahman began his early musical training under Master Dhanraj,[13][14] and at age 11 began playing in the orchestra of Malayalam composer (and close friend of his father) M. K. Arjunan.[15] He soon began working with other composers, such as M. S. Viswanathan, Ilaiyaraaja, Ramesh Naidu and Raj-Koti,[14] accompanied Zakir Hussain, Kunnakudi Vaidyanathan and L. Shankar on world tours and obtained a scholarship from Trinity College London to the Trinity College of Music.[9] Studying in Chennai, Rahman graduated with a diploma in Western classical music from the school.[16] Rahman was introduced to Qadiri Islam when his younger sister was seriously ill in 1984. His mother was a practicing Hindu.[17] He converted to Islam (his mother's religion) with other members of his family in 1989 at age 23, changing his name from R.S. Dileep Kumar to Allah Rakha Rahman (A.R. Rahman).[9][18]



Rahman initially composed scores for documentaries and jingles for advertisements and Indian television channels. In 1987 Rahman, then still known as Dileep, composed jingles for a line of watches introduced by Allwyn.[19] He also arranged the jingles for some advertisements that went on to become very popular, including the popular jingle for Titan Watches, in which he used the theme from Mozart's Symphony no.25.[20][21][22]

In 1992, he was approached by director Mani Ratnam to compose the score and soundtrack for his Tamil film, Roja.[23][24]

Rahman's film career began in 1992 when he started Panchathan Record Inn, a recording and mixing studio in his backyard. It would become the most-advanced recording studio in India,[23] and arguably one of Asia's most sophisticated and high-tech studios.[25] Cinematographer Santosh Sivan signed Rahman for the Malayalam film Yodha, a Mohanlal starrer directed by Sivan's brother Sangeeth Sivan that released in September 1992. The following year, Rahman received the Rajat Kamal (Silver Lotus) award for best music director at the National Film Awards for Roja. The films' score was critically and commercially successful in its original and dubbed versions, led by the innovative theme "Chinna Chinna Aasai". Rahman followed this with successful scores and songs for Tamil–language films for the Chennai film industry, including Ratnam's politically-charged Bombay, the urban Kadhalan, Thiruda Thiruda and S. Shankar's debut film Gentleman (with its popular dance song, "Chikku Bukku Rayile").[26][27][28][29] Rahman collaborated with director Bharathiraaja on Kizhakku Cheemayile and Karuththamma, producing successful Tamil rural folk-inspired film songs; he also composed for K. Balachander's Duet, which had some memorable Saxophone themes.[30][31] The 1995 film Indira and romantic comedies Mr. Romeo and Love Birds also drew attention.[32][33][34] Rahman attracted a Japanese audience with Muthu's success there.[35] His soundtracks are known in the Tamil Nadu film industry and abroad for his versatility in combining Western classical music, Carnatic and Tamil traditional and folk-music traditions, jazz, reggae and rock music.[36][37][38][39] The soundtrack for Bombay sold 12 million copies worldwide,[40] and "Bombay Theme" would later reappear in his soundtrack for Deepa Mehta's Fire and a number of compilations and other media. It was featured in the 2002 Palestinian film Divine Intervention and the 2005 Nicolas Cage film, Lord of War. Rangeela, directed by Ram Gopal Varma, was Rahman's Bollywood debut.[41] Successful scores and songs for Dil Se.. and the percussive Taal followed.[42][43] Sufi mysticism inspired "Chaiyya Chaiyya" from the former film and "Zikr" from his soundtrack album for Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose: The Forgotten Hero (which featured elaborate orchestral and choral arrangements).[18] Rahman's soundtrack album for the Chennai production Minsaara Kanavu won him his second National Film Award for Best Music Direction and a South FilmFare Award for Best Music Direction in a Tamil film in 1997, the latter setting a record of six consecutive wins; he later went on to win the award three consecutive additional times. The musical cues in the soundtrack albums for Sangamam and Iruvar used Carnatic vocals, the veena, rock guitar and jazz.[44] During the 2000s, Rahman composed scores and popular songs for Rajiv Menon's Kandukondain Kandukondain, Alaipayuthey, Ashutosh Gowariker's Swades, Rang De Basanti[45] and songs with Hindustani motifs for 2005's Water. Rahman has worked with Indian poets and lyricists such as Javed Akhtar, Gulzar, Vairamuthu and Vaali, and has produced commercially-successful soundtracks with directors Mani Ratnam and S. Shankar (Gentleman, Kadhalan, Indian, Jeans, Mudhalvan, Nayak, Boys, Sivaji and Enthiran).[46]

In 2005 Rahman expanded his Panchathan Record Inn studio by establishing AM Studios in Kodambakkam, Chennai, creating the most cutting-edge studio in Asia.[47][48] The following year he launched his own music label, KM Music,[49] with his score for Sillunu Oru Kaadhal.[50] Rahman scored the Mandarin-language film Warriors of Heaven and Earth in 2003 after researching and using Chinese and Japanese classical music,[51] and won the Just Plain Folks Music Award For Best Music Album for his score for 2006's Varalaru (God Father).[52] He co-scored Shekhar Kapur's first British film, Elizabeth: The Golden Age, in 2007[53] and received a Best Composer Asian Film Award nomination at the Hong Kong International Film Festival for his Jodhaa Akbar score.[54] Rahman's music has been sampled for other scores in India,[55] appearing in Inside Man, Lord of War, Divine Intervention and The Accidental Husband. His score for his first Hollywood film, the 2009 comedy Couples Retreat, won the BMI London Award for Best Score.[56] Rahman's music for 2008's Slumdog Millionaire won a Golden Globe and two Academy Awards (a first for an Asian), and the songs "Jai Ho" and "O... Saya" from its soundtrack were internationally successful. His music on 2008's Bollywood Jaane Tu... Ya Jaane Na was popular with Indian youth; that year, his score and songs for Jodhaa Akbar won critical acclaim, a Best Composer Asian Film Award nomination and IIFA awards for best music direction and score. In 2010, Rahman composed the original score and songs for the romantic Vinnaithaandi Varuvaayaa, the sci-fi romance Enthiran and Danny Boyle's 127 Hours, composing for the Imtiaz Ali musical Rockstar; the latter's soundtrack was a critical and commercial success.[57] In 2012 Rahman composed for Ekk Deewana Tha and the American drama People Like Us,[58] and collaborated with director Yash Chopra on Jab Tak Hai Jaan.[59] all were positively received.[60] By the end of the year his music for Mani Ratnam's Kadal was critically acclaimed, and the album topped the iTunes India chart for December.[61] In 2013, Rahman had two releases: Raanjhanaa and Maryan. Both were successful, with the former nominated for a number of awards[62][63][64] and the latter the iTunes India Tamil Album of 2013.[65]

The year 2014 was one of the busiest years for Rahman, with him claiming to have worked in 12 films in various languages.[66] While his first release for the year was the Imtiaz Ali's road movie Highway which garnered positive reviews, his very next release was the performance captured animation film Kochadaiiyaan, a Rajinikanth starrer directed by Soundarya Rajinikanth. The film's score and soundtrack garnered huge critical appraise with its score being long-listed at the forthcoming Academy Awards.[67] His next were the scores for the two back to back Hollywood films, Million Dollar Arm and The Hundred Foot Journey, both of which got into the contended list for the original score category nomination at the Oscars. This was followed by the highly successful soundtrack album for the period drama Kaaviya Thalaivan teaming up with director Vasanthabalan for the first time. His next release was Shankar's supernatural thriller I and K. S. Ravikumar's period action film Lingaa, both of which were highly acclaimed and appreciated upon release.

Background scores

Apart from successful soundtracks, he is also known for highly acclaimed background scores and is considered, one of the finest background-score composers in India.[68] His background scores are often characterised by the usage of subtle orchestration and ambient sounds.[68]

Trained in western classical music, he often employs contemporary instruments such as Guitars, Cello, Flute, Strings, Keyboard, Finger board, Harpejji, Santoor and traditional Indian instruments such as Shehnai, Sitar, Mrudangam, Veenai & Tabla to create scores.

Apart from getting high critical appreciations, several of Rahman's background scores have earned him many prestigious awards ranging from Academy awards to Filmfare awards.[68][69] Some of the films which fetched him appreciations for background scores include Roja, Bombay, Iruvar, Minsara Kanavu, Dil Se.., Taal, Lagaan, The Legend of Bhagat Singh, Swades, Rang De Basanti, Bose: The Forgotten Hero, Guru, Jodhaa Akbar, Raavanan, Vinnaithaandi Varuvaayaa, Rockstar, Enthiran ,Kadal , Kochadaiiyaan and I. Among his Hollywood scores, Warriors of Heaven and Earth, Slumdog Millionaire, 127 Hours, Million Dollar Arm and The Hundred-Foot Journey received rave reviews. A. R. Rahman received two Academy Awards for Slumdog Millionaire and two Academy Award nominations for 127 Hours. Recently, his scores for Kochadaiiyaan, Million Dollar Arm and The Hundred-Foot Journey have been nominated in the long list released by Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences.[70][71]

Performing and other projects

Male singer with female singers and dancers
Rahman at the 2010 Nobel Peace Prize Concert

Rahman has also been involved in non-film projects. Vande Mataram, an album of original compositions released for India's 50th anniversary of its independence in 1997,[72][73][74] is one of India's bestselling non-film albums.[75] He followed it with an album for the Bharat Bala–directed video Jana Gana Mana, a collection of performances by leading exponents and artists of Indian classical music.[76] Rahman has written advertising jingles and orchestrations for athletic events, television and Internet media, documentaries and short films,[77] frequently using the Czech Film Orchestra and the Chennai Strings Orchestra.

In 1999, Rahman partnered with choreographers Shobana and Prabhu Deva and a Tamil film-dancing troupe to perform with Michael Jackson in Munich, Germany at his Michael Jackson and Friends concert.[78] In 2002 he composed the music for his first stage production, Bombay Dreams, which was commissioned by Andrew Lloyd Webber.[79] The Finnish folk-music band Värttinä collaborated with Rahman on the Toronto production of The Lord of the Rings, and in 2004[80] he composed "Raga's Dance" for Vanessa-Mae's album Choreography (performed by Mae and the Royal Philharmonic Orchestra).[81]

Singer and guitarist in front of effects smoke
A. R. Rahman at Sufi Concert in Dubai

Since 2004 Rahman has performed three successful world tours before audiences in Singapore, Australia, Malaysia, Dubai, the United Kingdom, Canada, the United States and India,[80][82] and has been collaborating with Karen David on her upcoming studio album. A two-disc CD, Introducing A. R. Rahman (featuring 25 of his Tamil film-score pieces), was released in May 2006[83] and his non-film album Connections was released on 12 December 2008.[84] Rahman performed at a White House state dinner arranged by US President Barack Obama during an official visit by Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh on 24 November 2009.[85] He is one of over 70 artists on "We Are the World 25 for Haiti", a charity single to raise relief funds in the wake of the 2010 Haiti earthquake.[86] In 2010, Rahman composed "Jai Jai Garvi Gujarat" in honour of the 50th anniversary of the formation of Gujarat State,[87] "Semmozhiyaana Thamizh Mozhiyaam" as part of the World Classical Tamil Conference 2010,[88] and the theme song for the 2010 Commonwealth Games, "Jiyo Utho Bado Jeeto".[89] Rahman began his first world tour, (A. R. Rahman Jai Ho Concert: The Journey Home World Tour) on 11 June 2010 at Nassau Coliseum in New York; 16 cities worldwide were scheduled.[90]

Some of Rahman's notable compositions were performed by the London Philharmonic Orchestra in April 2010.[91] In February 2011 Rahman collaborated with Michael Bolton on Bolton's album, Gems – The Duets Collection,[92] reworking his "Sajna" from Couples Retreat.[93]

On 20 May 2011 Mick Jagger announced the formation of a supergroup, SuperHeavy, with Dave Stewart, Joss Stone, Damian Marley and Rahman;[94] its self-titled album was scheduled for release in September 2011.[95] The album would have Jagger singing on Rahman's composition, "Satyameva Jayate" ("The Truth Alone Triumphs").[96]

In January 2012 the Deutsches Filmorchester Babelsberg announced that it would join KM Music Conservatory musicians for a 100-member concert tour of five Indian cities (Germany and India 2011–2012: Infinite Opportunities), performing Rahman's songs. The marked the centennial of Indian cinema and Babelsberg Studio, the world's oldest film studio.[68]

In Summer 2012 Rahman composed a Punjabi song for the London Olympics opening ceremony, directed by Danny Boyle, part of a medley showcasing Indian influence in the UK. Indian musician Ilaiyaraja's song from the 1981 Tamil-language film Ram Lakshman was also chosen for the medley.[97]

In December 2012 Rahman and Shekhar Kapoor launched Qyuki, a networking site which is a platform for story writers to exchange their thoughts. Cisco invested ₹270 million in the startup, giving it a 17-percent share. Qyuki uses Cisco's cloud infrastructure for the site.[98][99][100] On 20 December he released the single "Infinite Love" in English and Hindi, commemorating the last day of the Mayan calendar to spread hope, peace and love. Rahman's 2013 tour, Rahmanishq, was announced on 29 July 2013 in Mumbai. Beginning in Sydney on 24 August, the tour moved to a number of cities in India.[101]

In January 2016, after a long break A. R. Rahman performed live in Chennai and for the first time in Coimbatore & Madurai, with a complete Tamil playlist. As the name suggests, Nenje Yezhu (which means rise up) began 2016 with a positive note and with music from the heart. The proceeds of this concert will be used for flood relief in Tamil Nadu and also for creating awareness against cancer, supporting VS Medical Trust outside Chennai.[102][103][104]

Musical style and impact

Skilled in Carnatic music, Western and Hindustani classical music and the Qawwali style of Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan, Rahman is noted for film songs amalgamating elements of these and other genres, layering instruments from different musical idioms in an improvisational style.[18][105] Symphonic orchestral themes accompany his scores, occasionally using a leitmotif. During the 1980s Rahman recorded monaural arrangements in common with his musical predecessors, K. V. Mahadevan and VishwanathanRamamoorthy. In later years his methodology changed, as he experimented with the fusion of traditional instruments with new electronic sounds and technology.[18][106]

Rahman's musical interests and outlook originate in his love of experimentation. His compositions have an auteuristic use of counterpoint, orchestration and the human voice, melding Indian pop music with a unique timbre, form and instrumentation. With this syncretic style and wide-ranging lyrics, the appeal of Rahman's music crosses classes and cultures in Indian society.[107]

His first soundtrack, for Roja, was listed on Time's all-time "10 Best Soundtracks" in 2005. Film critic Richard Corliss said that the composer's "astonishing debut work parades Rahman's gift for alchemizing outside influences until they are totally Tamil, totally Rahman",[108] and his initial global success is attributed to the South Asian diaspora. Music producer Ron Fair considers Rahman "one of the world's great living composers in any medium".[109]

Director Baz Luhrmann said:

I had come to the music of A. R. Rahman through the emotional and haunting score of Bombay and the wit and celebration of Lagaan. But the more of AR's music I encountered the more I was to be amazed at the sheer diversity of styles: from swinging brass bands to triumphant anthems; from joyous pop to West-End musicals. Whatever the style, A. R. Rahman's music always possesses a profound sense of humanity and spirit, qualities that inspire me the most.[110]

Rahman introduced 7.1 surround sound technology to South Indian films.[111]

On 21 May 2014 Rahman announced that he has partnered with former Black Eyed Peas’ Will.i.am to recreate an early popular track 'Urvashi Urvashi'. Track is 'Birthday'.[112]


Man sitting on couch, with two Academy Awards on table in front of him
Rahman at his home in Chennai, with Academy Awards for Slumdog Millionaire

Rahman was the 1995 recipient of the Mauritius National Award and the Malaysian Award for his contributions to music,[113] and was nominated for a Laurence Olivier Award for his first West End production. A four-time National Film Award winner and recipient of six Tamil Nadu State Film Awards, he has fifteen Filmfare Awards and thirteen Filmfare Awards South for his music.[113] Rahman has received a Kalaimamani from the Government of Tamil Nadu for excellence in the field of music, musical-achievement awards from the governments of Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh and a Padma Shri from the Government of India.[114] In 2006, he received an award from Stanford University for his contributions to global music.[115] The following year, Rahman entered the Limca Book of Records as "Indian of the Year for Contribution to Popular Music".[116] He received the 2008 Lifetime Achievement Award from the Rotary Club of Madras.[117] In 2009, for his Slumdog Millionaire score, Rahman won the Broadcast Film Critics Association Award, the Golden Globe Award for Best Original Score,[118] the BAFTA Award for Best Film Music and two Academy Awards (Best Original Score and Best Original Song, the latter shared with Gulzar) at the 81st Academy Awards. He has received honorary doctorates from Middlesex University, Aligarh Muslim University,[119][120] Anna University in Chennai and Miami University in Ohio.[121] The composer has won two Grammy Awards: Best Compilation Soundtrack Album and Best Song Written for Visual Media.[122] Rahman received the Padma Bhushan, India's third-highest civilian honour, in 2010.[123] His work in 127 Hours won him Golden Globe, BAFTA, and two Academy Award nominations (Best Original Music Score and Best Original Song) in 2011.[124][125][126] Rahman is an Honorary Fellow of the Trinity College of Music.[127]

On 24 October 2014 Rahman was awarded an honorary doctorate from Berklee College of Music during a concert paying tribute to his music featuring an international cast of students. Upon receiving his award he commented that being honored by Berklee illustrates how his life has come full circle, as at the start of his career, he had planned to study at Berklee before being offered the opportunity to score Roja.[128] During his 7 May 2012 acceptance speech of his honorary doctorate from Miami University in Ohio, Rahman mentioned that he received a Christmas card from the family of the President of the United States and an invitation to dinner at the White House.[129] A street was named in his honour in Markham, Ontario, Canada in November 2013.[130]

On 4 October 2015, the government of Seychelles named A. R. Rahman Cultural Ambassador for Seychelles in appreciation of the "invaluable services contributed to enhance Seychelles' Arts and Culture development."[131]

Personal life

Man in grey jacket and woman in sari
Rahman and his wife, Saira Banu, at the 2010 soundtrack release of Enthiran in Kuala Lumpur

Rahman is married to Saira Banu and has three children: Khatija, Rahima and Ameen.[132] Ameen has sung "NaNa" from Couples Retreat, and Khatija has sung "Pudhiya Manidha" from Enthiran.[133][134] Rahman is the uncle of composer G. V. Prakash Kumar, the son of his older sister A. R. Reihana.[135] Kumar's first film work was singing on Rahman's "Chikku Bukku Rayile", from his score for 1993's Gentleman.[136] Reihana's film debut was singing on "Vidai Kodu Engal Naadae" from Kannathil Muthamittal, and she is a music director. Rahman's younger sister, Fathima, heads his music conservatory in Chennai. The youngest, Ishrath, has a music studio. A.R.Rahman is the co-brother of film actor Rahman.[137]

An atheist during much of his childhood, in 1989 Rahman converted to Islam (the religion of his mother's family) from Hinduism.[17][138][139][140] After the early death of his father, his family experienced difficult times; Sufism influenced his mother who was a practicing Hindu[17] and, eventually, his family.[139][141] During the 81st Academy Awards ceremony Rahman paid tribute to his mother: "There is a Hindi dialogue, mere pass ma hai, which means 'even if I have got nothing I have my mother here'."[142] He said, "Ella pughazhum iraivanukke" ("All praise to God" in Tamil, a translation from the Quran) before his speech.[143]

Humanitarian work

Rahman is involved with a number of charitable causes. In 2004 he was appointed global ambassador of the Stop TB Partnership, a WHO project.[80] Rahman has supported Save the Children India and worked with Yusuf Islam on "Indian Ocean", a song featuring a-ha keyboard player Magne Furuholmen and Travis drummer Neil Primrose. Proceeds from the song went to help orphans in Banda Aceh who were affected by the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami.[144] He produced the single "We Can Make It Better" by Don Asian with Mukhtar Sahota.[145] In 2008 Rahman opened the KM Music Conservatory with an audio-media education facility to train aspiring musicians in vocals, instruments, music technology and sound design. The conservatory (with prominent musicians on staff and a symphony orchestra) is located near his studio in Kodambakkam, Chennai and offers courses at several levels. Violinist L. Subramaniam is on its advisory board.[146] Several of Rahman's proteges from the studio have scored feature films.[147] He composed the theme music for a 2006 short film for The Banyan to aid poor women in Chennai.[148]

In 2008 Rahman and noted percussionist Sivamani created a song, "Jiya Se Jiya", inspired by the Free Hugs Campaign and promoted it with a video filmed in a number of Indian cities.[149]


See also


  1. "AR Rahman Feels 'Happy and Honoured' with Padma Bhushan Win". Daily News and Analysis. Retrieved 29 November 2016.
  2. Corliss, Richard (25 April 2004). "The Mozart of Madras". Time. Retrieved 5 April 2011.
  3. "The 2009 TIME 100 – A.R. Rahman". Time. 30 April 2009. Archived from the original on 17 February 2011. Retrieved 24 January 2011.
  4. "A. R. Rahman named in Songlines Tomorrow's World Music Icons'". ARC Music. Retrieved 24 August 2011.
  5. "Hollywood calling Rahman". Hindustan Times. India. 8 December 2009. Retrieved 29 November 2016.
  6. "A. R. Rahman opens online store". Deccan Herald. India. 6 December 2009. Retrieved 3 February 2011.
  7. Richard Corliss (3 May 2004). "Culture: The Mozart of Madras". Time. Retrieved 3 February 2010.
  8. "Rahman's childhood". hindilyrics.net. Retrieved 19 April 2011.
  9. 1 2 3 "A R Rahman: In tune with life". The Times of India. 30 September 2002. Retrieved 5 April 2011.
  10. "Biography". hummaa.com. Retrieved 20 April 2011.
  11. Ganti, T. "Bollywood: A Guidebook to Popular Hindi Cinema": 112. ISBN 0-415-28854-1.
  12. "The Secret behind the Allure of A. R. Rahman". Khabar. Retrieved 12 March 2014.
  13. "Training under dhanraj master". Indiaglitz.com. Retrieved 20 April 2011.
  14. 1 2 "Indian under spotlight". indiansinparis.com. Retrieved 20 April 2011.
  15. "Film fraternity hails Rahman, Pookutty for win". The Indian Express. India. 23 February 2009. Retrieved 23 February 2009.
  16. Wax, Emily (9 February 2009). "'Slumdog' Composer's Crescendo of a Career". The Washington Post. Retrieved 8 November 2010.
  17. 1 2 3 "How AS Dileep Kumar converted to Islam to become AR Rahman". Dawn (newspaper).
  18. 1 2 3 4 Rangan, Baradwaj; Suhasini, Lalitha (2008). "AR Rahman: The Rolling Stone interview". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 16 November 2008.
  19. "A.R.Rahaman - Career". A. R. Rahman - Official website. A. R. Rahman. Retrieved 6 May 2016.
  20. Sudhish Kamath. "Look what's brewing". The Hindu.
  21. "The Hindu: Breaking News, India News, Elections, Bollywood, Cricket, Video, Latest News & Live Updates". The Hindu.
  22. "Tamil Nadu / Chennai News : Study at Rajiv Menon's institute". The Hindu. 2006-05-05. Retrieved 2012-02-04.
  23. 1 2 Eur, Andy Gregory. "The International Who's Who in Popular Music 2002": 419–420.
  24. Purie, Aroon (1994). "A.R. Rahman: Prodigious Debut". India Today. Living Media. 29 (1–6): 153.
  25. "An Interview with A.R. Rahman". Apple Inc. Archived from the original on 8 February 2011. Retrieved 24 January 2011.
  26. Culshaw, Peter (6 February 2009). "Interview with AR Rahman, the composer behind the Slumdog Millionaire soundtrack". The Telegraph. London. Retrieved 24 February 2011.
  27. "Work of the magic and other musicians". Global Rhythm. New York: World Marketing Inc. 11 (7–12): 11. 1995. ISSN 1553-9814. OCLC 50137257. His first assignment was to write the music for Ratman's film, Roja. Subsequent films that established AR Rahman as the genius of Tamil film music included Pudhiya Mugam with director Suresh Menon and Gentleman with Shankar
  28. John Shepherd (2005). Continuum encyclopedia of popular music of the world. 3–7. London/New York: Continuum. pp. 80–81. ISBN 0-8264-6321-5. OCLC 444486924. ISBN 978-0-8264-6321-0, ISBN 0-8264-6322-3, ISBN 978-0-8264-6322-7, ISBN 0-8264-7436-5, ISBN 978-0-8264-7436-0. Music directors such as AR Rahman and Karthik Raja produce film scores that are more eclectic, incorporating rap, jazz, reggae, hard rock and fast dance beats ( as, for example, for Duet [1994], Kadhalan [1994] and Bombay [1995]).
  29. Purie, Aroon (1995). "A.R. Rahman: Music The New Wave". India Today. Living Media. 20 (1–6): 11.
  30. K. Naresh Kumar (1995). Indian cinema : ebbs and tides. 26–27. New Delhi: Har-Anand Publications. p. 135. ISBN 978-81-241-0344-9. OCLC 33444588.
  31. World Saxophone Congress. North American Saxophone Alliance (2001). "The saxophone symposium : journal of the North American Saxophone Alliance". 26–27. Greenville: North American Saxophone Alliance: 78–85. ISSN 0271-3705. OCLC 5190155. The famous South Indian film music director AR Rahman invited [ Kadri Gopalnath ] to work on the music for a major South Indian film. Rahman, a new music director, writes music that brings a more cosmopolitan feel to Indian cinema, and he was open to ...
  32. Purie, Aroon (1996). "Music love birds". India Today. Living Media. 21 (1–6): 195. ISSN 0254-8399. OCLC 2675526. AR Rahman's latest offering is a heavy dose of synthesiser and percussion sprinkled with rap. "No Problem" by Apache Indian is the selling point.
  33. Kasbekar, Asha (2006). Pop Culture India!: Media, Arts and Lifestyle. ABC-CLIO. p. 215. ISBN 978-1-85109-636-7. Songs play as important a part in South Indian films and some South Indian music directors such as A. R. Rehman and Ilyaraja have an enthusiastic national and even international following
  34. Chaudhuri, S. "Cinema of South India and Sri Lanka". Contemporary World Cinema: Europe, the Middle East, East Asia and South Asia. p. 149. Now the South is believed to excel the North in many respects, including its colour labs, state of the art digital technology and sound processing facilities (which have improved the dubbing of Tamil and other South Indian languages into Hindi since the 1970s).
  35. Prasad, Ayappa (2003). "Films don't believe in borders". Screen. Archived from the original on 18 December 2008. Retrieved 15 November 2008.
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